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Molecules 2017, 22(4), 666; doi:10.3390/molecules22040666

Phenolic Compounds Isolated from Caesalpinia coriaria Induce S and G2/M Phase Cell Cycle Arrest Differentially and Trigger Cell Death by Interfering with Microtubule Dynamics in Cancer Cell Lines

1
Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, C.P. 62209 Cuernavaca, Mexico
2
Centro de Investigaciones Químicas-IICBA, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, C.P. 62209 Cuernavaca, Mexico
3
Departamento de Genética del Desarrollo y Fisiología Molecular, Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cuernavaca, C.P. 62209 Morelos, Mexico
4
Departamento de Ingenieria Agroindustrial, Universidad de Guanajuato, Salvatierra, C.P. 38000 Guanajuato, Mexico
5
UMR152 Pharma Dev, Université de Toulouse, IRD, UPS, 31062 Toulouse, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nancy D. Turner
Received: 8 March 2017 / Revised: 17 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 22 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract

Caesalpinia coriaria (C. coriaria), also named cascalote, has been known traditionally in México for having cicatrizing and inflammatory properties. Phytochemical reports on Caesalpinia species have identified a high content of phenolic compounds and shown antineoplastic effects against cancer cells. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the active compounds of a water:acetone:ethanol (WAE) extract of C. coriaria pods and characterize their cytotoxic effect and cell death induction in different cancer cell lines. The compounds isolated and identified by chromatography and spectroscopic analysis were stigmasterol, ethyl gallate and gallic acid. Cytotoxic assays on cancer cells showed different ranges of activities. A differential effect on cell cycle progression was observed by flow cytometry. In particular, ethyl gallate and tannic acid induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and showed interesting effect on microtubule stabilization in Hep3B cells observed by immunofluorescence. The induction of apoptosis was characterized by morphological characteristic changes, and was supported by increases in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 expression and activation of caspase 3/7. This work constitutes the first phytochemical and cytotoxic study of C. coriaria and showed the action of its phenolic constituents on cell cycle, cell death and microtubules organization. View Full-Text
Keywords: phenolic compounds; Caesalpinia coriaria; ethyl gallate; gallic acid; tannic acid; cell cycle; cancer; cell death; apoptosis; microtubules phenolic compounds; Caesalpinia coriaria; ethyl gallate; gallic acid; tannic acid; cell cycle; cancer; cell death; apoptosis; microtubules
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Sánchez-Carranza, J.N.; Alvarez, L.; Marquina-Bahena, S.; Salas-Vidal, E.; Cuevas, V.; Jiménez, E.W.; Veloz G., R.A.; Carraz, M.; González-Maya, L. Phenolic Compounds Isolated from Caesalpinia coriaria Induce S and G2/M Phase Cell Cycle Arrest Differentially and Trigger Cell Death by Interfering with Microtubule Dynamics in Cancer Cell Lines. Molecules 2017, 22, 666.

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