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Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2196; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22122196

Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction, HPLC and UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS Analysis of Main Macamides and Macaenes from Maca (Cultivars of Lepidium meyenii Walp)

1
College of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Dalian University, Dalian 116622, China
2
College of Medical, Dalian University, Dalian 116622, China
3
Tibet Plateau Institute of Biology, Lhasa 850001, China
4
School of Marine Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai 519082, China
5
HPV Immunology Lab, Leidos Biomedical Research Inc., Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 December 2017 / Revised: 7 December 2017 / Accepted: 8 December 2017 / Published: 10 December 2017
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Abstract

Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), using petroleum ether as the solvent, was systematically applied to extract main macamides and macaenes from Maca hypocotyls. Extraction yield was related with four variables, including ratio of solution to solid, extraction temperature, extraction time, and extraction power. On the basis of response surface methodology (RSM), the optimal conditions were determined to be the ratio of solution to solid as 10:1 (mL/g), the extraction temperature of 40 °C, the extraction time of 30 min, and the extraction power of 200 W. Based on the optimal extraction method of UAE, the total contents of ten main macamides and two main macaenes of Maca cultivated in twenty different areas of Tibet were analyzed by HPLC and UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS. This study indicated that UAE was able to effectively extract macamides alkaloids from Maca hypocotyls. Quantitative analysis showed that geographical origins, not ecotypes, played a more important role on the accumulation of active macamides in Maca. View Full-Text
Keywords: cultivated maca; macamides; ultrassound-assisted extraction; response surface methodology; optimization; UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS cultivated maca; macamides; ultrassound-assisted extraction; response surface methodology; optimization; UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Chen, S.-X.; Li, K.-K.; Pubu, D.; Jiang, S.-P.; Chen, B.; Chen, L.-R.; Yang, Z.; Ma, C.; Gong, X.-J. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction, HPLC and UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS Analysis of Main Macamides and Macaenes from Maca (Cultivars of Lepidium meyenii Walp). Molecules 2017, 22, 2196.

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