Next Article in Journal
Biological Properties of Low-Toxicity PLGA and PLGA/PHB Fibrous Nanocomposite Implants for Osseous Tissue Regeneration. Part I: Evaluation of Potential Biotoxicity
Next Article in Special Issue
Pathogenic Acanthamoeba castellanii Secretes the Extracellular Aminopeptidase M20/M25/M40 Family Protein to Target Cells for Phagocytosis by Disruption
Previous Article in Journal
Evaluation of Inulin Replacing Chitosan in a Polyurethane/Polysaccharide Material for Pb2+ Removal
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2094; doi:10.3390/molecules22122094

The Eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1 Alpha (eEF1α) from the Parasite Leishmania infantum Is Modified with the Immunomodulatory Substituent Phosphorylcholine (PC)

Protein Analytics, Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Friedrichstrasse 24, 35392 Giessen, Germany
Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Str. prov. per Casamassima km 3, Valenzano, 70010 Bari, Italy
Department of Pharmacology, Goethe University College of Pharmacy, 60438 Frankfurt, Germany
These authors contributed equally to this manuscript.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 October 2017 / Accepted: 24 November 2017 / Published: 29 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Modifications and Bioconjugation)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4444 KB, uploaded 29 November 2017]   |  


Proteins and glycolipids have been found to be decorated with phosphorylcholine (PC) both in protozoa and nematodes that parasitize humans and animals. PC epitopes can provoke various effects on immune cells leading to an immunomodulation of the host’s immune system that allows long-term persistence of the parasites. So far, only a limited number of PC-modified proteins, mainly from nematodes, have been identified. Infections caused by Leishmania spp. (e.g., L. infantum in southern Europe) affect about 12 million people worldwide and are characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical forms in humans, ranging from cutaneous to fatal visceral leishmaniasis. To establish and maintain the infection, these protozoa are dependent on the secretion of effector molecules into the host for modulating their immune system. In this project, we analyzed the PC modification of L. infantum promastigotes by 2D-gel based proteomics. Western blot analysis with the PC-specific antibody TEPC-15 revealed one PC-substituted protein in this organism, identified as eEF1α. We could demonstrate that the binding of eEF1α to one of its downstream effectors is dependent on its PC-modification. In this study we provide evidence that in this parasite the modification of eEF1α with PC may be essential for its function as an important virulence factor. View Full-Text
Keywords: Leishmania infantum; promastigote; proteomics; phosphorylcholine; immunomodulation; immunofluorescence Leishmania infantum; promastigote; proteomics; phosphorylcholine; immunomodulation; immunofluorescence

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Timm, T.; Annoscia, G.; Klein, J.; Lochnit, G. The Eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1 Alpha (eEF1α) from the Parasite Leishmania infantum Is Modified with the Immunomodulatory Substituent Phosphorylcholine (PC). Molecules 2017, 22, 2094.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top