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Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2026; doi:10.3390/molecules22122026

Structural Diversity and Biological Activities of the Cyclodipeptides from Fungi

Department of Plant Pathology, College of Plant Protection, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 October 2017 / Revised: 22 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)

Abstract

Cyclodipeptides, called 2,5-diketopiperazines (2,5-DKPs), are obtained by the condensation of two amino acids. Fungi have been considered to be a rich source of novel and bioactive cyclodipeptides. This review highlights the occurrence, structures and biological activities of the fungal cyclodipeptides with the literature covered up to July 2017. A total of 635 fungal cyclodipeptides belonging to the groups of tryptophan-proline, tryptophan-tryptophan, tryptophan–Xaa, proline–Xaa, non-tryptophan–non-proline, and thio-analogs have been discussed and reviewed. They were mainly isolated from the genera of Aspergillus and Penicillium. More and more cyclodipeptides have been isolated from marine-derived and plant endophytic fungi. Some of them were screened to have cytotoxic, phytotoxic, antimicrobial, insecticidal, vasodilator, radical scavenging, antioxidant, brine shrimp lethal, antiviral, nematicidal, antituberculosis, and enzyme-inhibitory activities to show their potential applications in agriculture, medicinal, and food industry. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyclic dipeptides; 2,5-diketopiperazines; epipolythiodioxopiperazines; fungi; biological activities; occurrence; applications cyclic dipeptides; 2,5-diketopiperazines; epipolythiodioxopiperazines; fungi; biological activities; occurrence; applications
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Wang, X.; Li, Y.; Zhang, X.; Lai, D.; Zhou, L. Structural Diversity and Biological Activities of the Cyclodipeptides from Fungi. Molecules 2017, 22, 2026.

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