Next Article in Journal
Antispasmodic Effects and Action Mechanism of Essential Oil of Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray on Rabbit Ileum
Next Article in Special Issue
Treatment Modalities for Acne
Previous Article in Journal
High-Resolution α-Glucosidase Inhibition Profiling Combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR for Identification of Antidiabetic Compounds in Eremanthus crotonoides (Asteraceae)
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2016, 21(6), 786; doi:10.3390/molecules21060786

Flow and Thixotropic Parameters for Rheological Characterization of Hydrogels

Department of Physical and Colloidal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Carol Davila”, Bucharest 020956, Romania
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Carol Davila”, Bucharest 020956, Romania
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yogeshvar N. Kalia
Received: 21 April 2016 / Revised: 6 June 2016 / Accepted: 13 June 2016 / Published: 16 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transdermal Delivery Systems: Current Landscape and Trends)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1565 KB, uploaded 16 June 2016]   |  


The goal of this paper was to design several sodium carboxymethylcellulose hydrogels containing a BCS class II model drug and to evaluate their flow and thixotropic properties. The rheological measurements were performed at two temperatures (23 °C and 37 °C), using a rotational viscometer. The hydrogels were stirred at different time intervals (10 s, 2, 5, 10 and 20 min at 23 °C, and 10 s, 2 and 5 min at 37 °C), with a maximum rotational speed of 60 rpm, and the corresponding forward and backward rheograms were recorded as shear stress vs. shear rate. For all hydrogels, the rheological data obtained at both temperatures showed a decrease of viscosity with the increase of the shear rate, highlighting a pseudoplastic behaviour. The flow profiles viscosity vs. shear rate were quantified through power law model, meanwhile the flow curves shear stress vs. shear rate were assessed by applying the Herschel-Bulkley model. The thixotropic character was evaluated through different descriptors: thixotropic area, thixotropic index, thixotropic constant and destructuration thixotropic coefficient. The gel-forming polymer concentration and the rheological experiments temperature significantly influence the flow and thixotropic parameters values of the designed hydrogels. The rheological characteristics described have an impact on the drug release microenvironment and determine the stasis time at the application site. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrogel; rheological models; flow parameters; thixotropic descriptors hydrogel; rheological models; flow parameters; thixotropic descriptors

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ghica, M.V.; Hîrjău, M.; Lupuleasa, D.; Dinu-Pîrvu, C.-E. Flow and Thixotropic Parameters for Rheological Characterization of Hydrogels. Molecules 2016, 21, 786.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top