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Molecules 2016, 21(6), 731; doi:10.3390/molecules21060731

Biologically Synthesized Gold Nanoparticles Ameliorate Cold and Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress in Escherichia coli

1
College of Biological and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan 430023, China
2
Key Laboratory of Animal Reproduction and Germplasm Enhancement in Universities of Shandong, College of Animal Science and Technology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109, China
3
Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 28 April 2016 / Revised: 19 May 2016 / Accepted: 30 May 2016 / Published: 4 June 2016
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Abstract

Due to their unique physical, chemical, and optical properties, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have recently attracted much interest in the field of nanomedicine, especially in the areas of cancer diagnosis and photothermal therapy. Because of the enormous potential of these nanoparticles, various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been adopted for their synthesis. Synthetic antioxidants are dangerous to human health. Thus, the search for effective, nontoxic natural compounds with effective antioxidative properties is essential. Although AuNPs have been studied for use in various biological applications, exploration of AuNPs as antioxidants capable of inhibiting oxidative stress induced by heat and cold stress is still warranted. Therefore, one goal of our study was to produce biocompatible AuNPs using biological methods that are simple, nontoxic, biocompatible, and environmentally friendly. Next, we aimed to assess the antioxidative effect of AuNPs against oxidative stress induced by cold and heat in Escherichia coli, which is a suitable model for stress responses involving AuNPs. The response of aerobically grown E. coli cells to cold and heat stress was found to be similar to the oxidative stress response. Upon exposure to cold and heat stress, the viability and metabolic activity of E. coli was significantly reduced compared to the control. In addition, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and leakage of proteins and sugars were significantly elevated, and the levels of lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) significantly lowered compared to in the control. Concomitantly, AuNPs ameliorated cold and heat-induced oxidative stress responses by increasing the expression of antioxidants, including glutathione (GSH), glutathione S-transferase (GST), super oxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). These consistent physiology and biochemical data suggest that AuNPs can ameliorate cold and heat stress-induced oxidative damage in E. coli. Our results indicate that AuNPs may be effective antioxidants. However, further studies are needed to confirm the role of AuNPs as antioxidative agents, as well as their mechanism of action. View Full-Text
Keywords: Escherichia coli; gold nanoparticles; heat stress; cold stress; oxidative stress; antioxidants Escherichia coli; gold nanoparticles; heat stress; cold stress; oxidative stress; antioxidants
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Zhang, X.-F.; Shen, W.; Gurunathan, S. Biologically Synthesized Gold Nanoparticles Ameliorate Cold and Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress in Escherichia coli. Molecules 2016, 21, 731.

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