Next Article in Journal
Effects of Astaxanthin from Litopenaeus Vannamei on Carrageenan-Induced Edema and Pain Behavior in Mice
Previous Article in Journal
Clean Transformation of Ethanol to Useful Chemicals. The Behavior of a Gold-Modified Silicalite Catalyst
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2016, 21(3), 375; doi:10.3390/molecules21030375

A Novel Biomolecule-Mediated Reduction of Graphene Oxide: A Multifunctional Anti-Cancer Agent

Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 31 December 2015 / Revised: 14 March 2016 / Accepted: 15 March 2016 / Published: 18 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4865 KB, uploaded 18 March 2016]   |  

Abstract

Graphene oxide (GO) is a monolayer of carbon atoms that form a dense honeycomb structure, consisting of hydroxyl and epoxide functional groups on the two accessible sides and carboxylic groups at the edges. In contrast, graphene is a two-dimensional sheet of sp2-hybridized carbon atoms packed into a honeycomb lattice. Graphene has great potential for use in biomedical applications due to its excellent physical and chemical properties. In this study, we report a facile and environmentally friendly approach for the synthesis of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) using uric acid (UA). The synthesized uric acid-reduced graphene oxide (UA-rGO) was fully characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy. GO and UA-rGO induced a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability and induced cytotoxicity in human ovarian cancer cells. The results from this study suggest that UA-rGO could cause apoptosis in mammalian cells. The toxicity of UA-rGO is significantly higher than GO. Based on our findings, UA-rGO shows cytotoxic effects against human ovarian cancer cells, and its synthesis is environmentally friendly. UA-rGO significantly inhibits cell viability by increasing lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, activation of caspase-3, and DNA fragmentation. This is the first report to describe the comprehensive effects of UA-rGO in ovarian cancer cells. We believe that the functional aspects of newly synthesized UA-rGO will provide advances towards various biomedical applications in the near future. View Full-Text
Keywords: uric acid; graphene oxide; reduced graphene oxide; cell viability; ovarian cancer cells uric acid; graphene oxide; reduced graphene oxide; cell viability; ovarian cancer cells
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Choi, Y.-J.; Kim, E.; Han, J.; Kim, J.-H.; Gurunathan, S. A Novel Biomolecule-Mediated Reduction of Graphene Oxide: A Multifunctional Anti-Cancer Agent. Molecules 2016, 21, 375.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]

Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top