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Molecules 2016, 21(3), 375; doi:10.3390/molecules21030375

A Novel Biomolecule-Mediated Reduction of Graphene Oxide: A Multifunctional Anti-Cancer Agent

Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 31 December 2015 / Revised: 14 March 2016 / Accepted: 15 March 2016 / Published: 18 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4865 KB, uploaded 18 March 2016]   |  


Graphene oxide (GO) is a monolayer of carbon atoms that form a dense honeycomb structure, consisting of hydroxyl and epoxide functional groups on the two accessible sides and carboxylic groups at the edges. In contrast, graphene is a two-dimensional sheet of sp2-hybridized carbon atoms packed into a honeycomb lattice. Graphene has great potential for use in biomedical applications due to its excellent physical and chemical properties. In this study, we report a facile and environmentally friendly approach for the synthesis of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) using uric acid (UA). The synthesized uric acid-reduced graphene oxide (UA-rGO) was fully characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy. GO and UA-rGO induced a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability and induced cytotoxicity in human ovarian cancer cells. The results from this study suggest that UA-rGO could cause apoptosis in mammalian cells. The toxicity of UA-rGO is significantly higher than GO. Based on our findings, UA-rGO shows cytotoxic effects against human ovarian cancer cells, and its synthesis is environmentally friendly. UA-rGO significantly inhibits cell viability by increasing lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, activation of caspase-3, and DNA fragmentation. This is the first report to describe the comprehensive effects of UA-rGO in ovarian cancer cells. We believe that the functional aspects of newly synthesized UA-rGO will provide advances towards various biomedical applications in the near future. View Full-Text
Keywords: uric acid; graphene oxide; reduced graphene oxide; cell viability; ovarian cancer cells uric acid; graphene oxide; reduced graphene oxide; cell viability; ovarian cancer cells

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Choi, Y.-J.; Kim, E.; Han, J.; Kim, J.-H.; Gurunathan, S. A Novel Biomolecule-Mediated Reduction of Graphene Oxide: A Multifunctional Anti-Cancer Agent. Molecules 2016, 21, 375.

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