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Molecules 2016, 21(11), 1423; doi:10.3390/molecules21111423

Discrimination and Nitric Oxide Inhibitory Activity Correlation of Ajwa Dates from Different Grades and Origin

1
Laboratory of Natural Products, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Malaysia
2
Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Malaysia
3
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marcello Iriti
Received: 12 August 2016 / Revised: 13 October 2016 / Accepted: 20 October 2016 / Published: 28 October 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1861 KB, uploaded 28 October 2016]   |  

Abstract

This study was aimed at examining the variations in the metabolite constituents of the different Ajwa grades and farm origins. It is also targeted at establishing the correlations between the metabolite contents and the grades and further to the nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity. Identification of the metabolites was generated using 1H-NMR spectroscopy metabolomics analyses utilizing multivariate methods. The NO inhibitory activity was determined using a Griess assay. Multivariate data analysis, for both supervised and unsupervised approaches, showed clusters among different grades of Ajwa dates obtained from different farms. The compounds that contribute towards the observed separation between Ajwa samples were suggested to be phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and phenylalanine. Ajwa dates were shown to have different metabolite compositions and exhibited a wide range of NO inhibitory activity. It is also revealed that Ajwa Grade 1 from the al-Aliah farm exhibited more than 90% NO inhibitory activity compared to the other grades and origins. Phenolic compounds were among the compounds that played a role towards the greater capacity of NO inhibitory activity shown by Ajwa Grade 1 from the al-Aliah farm. View Full-Text
Keywords: Phoenix dactylifera; Ajwa dates; RAW 264.7 cells; NMR metabolomics; nitric oxide Phoenix dactylifera; Ajwa dates; RAW 264.7 cells; NMR metabolomics; nitric oxide
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MDPI and ACS Style

Abdul-Hamid, N.A.; Mediani, A.; Maulidiani, M.; Abas, F.; Ismail, I.S.; Shaari, K.; Lajis, N.H. Discrimination and Nitric Oxide Inhibitory Activity Correlation of Ajwa Dates from Different Grades and Origin. Molecules 2016, 21, 1423.

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