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Molecules 2015, 20(9), 17405-17428; doi:10.3390/molecules200917405

Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau Ethanol Extract Inhibits Hepatoma in Mice through Upregulation of the Immune Response

1
School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China
2
Bio Nice Food Science Sdn. Bhd. No.5, Jalan SILC ¼, Perindustrian SILC, Nusajaya, Johor 79200, Malaysia
3
School of Pharmacy, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Arduino A. Mangoni
Received: 19 April 2015 / Revised: 1 September 2015 / Accepted: 9 September 2015 / Published: 18 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [16381 KB, uploaded 21 September 2015]   |  

Abstract

Clinacanthans nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau is a popular medicinal vegetable in Southern Asia, and its extracts have displayed significant anti-proliferative effects on cancer cells in vitro. However, the underlying mechanism for this effect has yet to be established. This study investigated the antitumor and immunomodulatory activity of C. nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau 30% ethanol extract (CN30) in vivo. CN30 was prepared and its main components were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). CN30 had a significant inhibitory effect on tumor volume and weight. Hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) staining and TUNEL assay revealed that hepatoma cells underwent significant apoptosis with CN30 treatment, while expression levels of proliferation markers PCNA and p-AKT were significantly decreased when treated with low or high doses of CN30 treatment. Western blot analysis of PAPR, caspase-3, BAX, and Bcl2 also showed that CN30 induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells. Furthermore, intracellular staining analysis showed that CN30 treatment increased the number of IFN-γ+ T cells and decreased the number of IL-4+ T cells. Serum IFN-γ and interleukin-2 levels also significantly improved. Our findings indicated that CN30 demonstrated antitumor properties by up-regulating the immune response, and warrants further evaluation as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment and prevention of cancers. View Full-Text
Keywords: Clinacanthus nutans; tumor; apoptosis; immunoregulation Clinacanthus nutans; tumor; apoptosis; immunoregulation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Huang, D.; Guo, W.; Gao, J.; Chen, J.; Olatunji, J.O. Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau Ethanol Extract Inhibits Hepatoma in Mice through Upregulation of the Immune Response. Molecules 2015, 20, 17405-17428.

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