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Molecules 2015, 20(9), 16770-16787; doi:10.3390/molecules200916770

Acetylated Rhamnogalacturonans from Immature Fruits of Abelmoschus esculentus Inhibit the Adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to Human Gastric Cells by Interaction with Outer Membrane Proteins

1
Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology and Phytochemistry, University of Münster, Münster 48149, Germany
2
Pathogen Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, Telangana 500046, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Thomas J. Schmidt
Received: 13 July 2015 / Revised: 3 September 2015 / Accepted: 7 September 2015 / Published: 15 September 2015
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Abstract

Polysaccharide containing extracts from immature fruits of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) are known to exhibit antiadhesive effects against bacterial adhesion of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) to stomach tissue. The present study investigates structural and functional features of polymers responsible for this inhibition of bacterial attachment to host cells. Ammonium sulfate precipitation of an aqueous extract yielded two fractions at 60% and 90% saturation with significant antiadhesive effects against H. pylori, strain J99, (FE60% 68% ± 15%; FE90% 75% ± 11% inhibition rates) after preincubation of the bacteria at 1 mg/mL. Sequential extraction of okra fruits yielded hot buffer soluble solids (HBSS) with dose dependent antiadhesive effects against strain J99 and three clinical isolates. Preincubation of H. pylori with HBSS (1 mg/mL) led to reduced binding to 3ʹ-sialyl lactose, sialylated Lea and Lex. A reduction of bacterial binding to ligands complementary to BabA and SabA was observed when bacteria were pretreated with FE90%. Structural analysis of the antiadhesive polysaccharides (molecular weight, monomer composition, linkage analysis, stereochemistry, and acetylation) indicated the presence of acetylated rhamnogalacturonan-I polymers, decorated with short galactose side chains. Deacetylation of HBSS and FE90% resulted in loss of the antiadhesive activity, indicating esterification being a prerequisite for antiadhesive activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: Abelmoschus esculentus; acetylation; adhesion; antiadhesion; BabA; Helicobacter pylori; okra; rhamnogalacturonan Abelmoschus esculentus; acetylation; adhesion; antiadhesion; BabA; Helicobacter pylori; okra; rhamnogalacturonan
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Thöle, C.; Brandt, S.; Ahmed, N.; Hensel, A. Acetylated Rhamnogalacturonans from Immature Fruits of Abelmoschus esculentus Inhibit the Adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to Human Gastric Cells by Interaction with Outer Membrane Proteins. Molecules 2015, 20, 16770-16787.

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