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Molecules 2015, 20(3), 4254-4276; doi:10.3390/molecules20034254

Can We Produce Heparin/Heparan Sulfate Biomimetics Using “Mother-Nature” as the Gold Standard?

1
Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
2
The Raymond Purves Research Labs, Institute of Bone and Joint Research, Kolling Institute of Medical Research, University of Sydney, The Royal North Shore Hospital of Sydney, St. Leonards, NSW 2065, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vito Ferro
Received: 16 January 2015 / Revised: 13 February 2015 / Accepted: 26 February 2015 / Published: 5 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glycosaminoglycans and Their Mimetics)
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Abstract

Heparan sulfate (HS) and heparin are glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) that are heterogeneous in nature, not only due to differing disaccharide combinations, but also their sulfate modifications. HS is well known for its interactions with various growth factors and cytokines; and heparin for its clinical use as an anticoagulant. Due to their potential use in tissue regeneration; and the recent adverse events due to contamination of heparin; there is an increased surge to produce these GAGs on a commercial scale. The production of HS from natural sources is limited so strategies are being explored to be biomimetically produced via chemical; chemoenzymatic synthesis methods and through the recombinant expression of proteoglycans. This review details the most recent advances in the field of HS/heparin synthesis for the production of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and as a tool further our understanding of the interactions that occur between GAGs and growth factors and cytokines involved in tissue development and repair. View Full-Text
Keywords: heparan sulfate; heparin; low molecular weight heparin; glycosaminoglycans; proteoglycans heparan sulfate; heparin; low molecular weight heparin; glycosaminoglycans; proteoglycans
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Farrugia, B.L.; Lord, M.S.; Melrose, J.; Whitelock, J.M. Can We Produce Heparin/Heparan Sulfate Biomimetics Using “Mother-Nature” as the Gold Standard? Molecules 2015, 20, 4254-4276.

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