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Molecules 2015, 20(12), 22476-22498; doi:10.3390/molecules201219860

Green Chemistry Approach for Synthesis of Effective Anticancer Palladium Nanoparticles

Department of Animal Biotechnology, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-Dong, Gwangin-gu, Seoul 143-701, Korea
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu
Received: 26 November 2015 / Revised: 9 December 2015 / Accepted: 10 December 2015 / Published: 15 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology: Novel Approaches)
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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to design and synthesize Palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) using an environmentally friendly approach and evaluate the in vitro efficacy of PdNPs in human ovarian cancer A2780 cells. Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy was used to monitor the conversion of Pd(II) ions to Pd(0)NPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the crystallinity of the as-synthesized PdNPs and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) further confirmed the role of the leaf extract of Evolvulus alsinoides as a reducing and stabilizing agent for the synthesis of PdNPs. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the average size of the NPs was 5 nm. After a 24-h exposure to PdNPs, cell viability and light microscopy assays revealed the dose-dependent toxicity of the PdNPs. Furthermore, the dose-dependent cytotoxicity of the PdNPs was confirmed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, activation of PdNPs-induced autophagy, impairment of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), enhanced caspase-3 activity, and detection of TUNEL-positive cells. Our study demonstrates a single, simple, dependable and green approach for the synthesis of PdNPs using leaf extracts of Evolvulus alsinoides. Furthermore, the in vitro efficacy of PdNPs in human ovarian cancer cells suggests that it could be an effective therapeutic agent for cancer therapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: palladium nanoparticles; cell viability; ovarian cancer cells; apoptosis; anticancer activity; leaf extract palladium nanoparticles; cell viability; ovarian cancer cells; apoptosis; anticancer activity; leaf extract
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Gurunathan, S.; Kim, E.; Han, J.W.; Park, J.H.; Kim, J.-H. Green Chemistry Approach for Synthesis of Effective Anticancer Palladium Nanoparticles. Molecules 2015, 20, 22476-22498.

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