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Molecules 2015, 20(12), 22128-22136; doi:10.3390/molecules201219840

Limonin, a Component of Dictamni Radicis Cortex, Inhibits Eugenol-Induced Calcium and cAMP Levels and PKA/CREB Signaling Pathway in Non-Neuronal 3T3-L1 Cells

1
Division of Functional Food Research, Korea Food Research Institute, 1201-62 Anyangpangyo-ro, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-746, Korea
2
Food Biotechnology, University of Science & Technology, 217 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 16 October 2015 / Revised: 30 November 2015 / Accepted: 2 December 2015 / Published: 10 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract

Limonin, one of the major components in dictamni radicis cortex (DRC), has been shown to play various biological roles in cancer, inflammation, and obesity in many different cell types and tissues. Recently, the odorant-induced signal transduction pathway (OST) has gained attention not only because of its function in the perception of smell but also because of its numerous physiological functions in non-neuronal cells. However, little is known about the effects of limonin and DRC on the OST pathway in non-neuronal cells. We investigated odorant-stimulated increases in Ca2+ and cAMP, major second messengers in the OST pathway, in non-neuronal 3T3-L1 cells pretreated with limonin and ethanol extracts of DRC. Limonin and the extracts significantly decreased eugenol-induced Ca2+ and cAMP levels and upregulated phosphorylation of CREB and PKA. Our results demonstrated that limonin and DRC extract inhibit the OST pathway in non-neuronal cells by modulating Ca2+ and cAMP levels and phosphorylation of CREB. View Full-Text
Keywords: limonin; furanolactone; cAMP; olfactory; calcium; dictamni radices cortex limonin; furanolactone; cAMP; olfactory; calcium; dictamni radices cortex
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yoon, Y.C.; Kim, S.-H.; Kim, M.J.; Yang, H.J.; Rhyu, M.-R.; Park, J.-H. Limonin, a Component of Dictamni Radicis Cortex, Inhibits Eugenol-Induced Calcium and cAMP Levels and PKA/CREB Signaling Pathway in Non-Neuronal 3T3-L1 Cells. Molecules 2015, 20, 22128-22136.

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