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Correction published on 28 January 2016, see Molecules 2016, 21(2), 159.

Open AccessReview
Molecules 2015, 20(12), 21732-21749; doi:10.3390/molecules201219800

Polyphenols from Bee Pollen: Structure, Absorption, Metabolism and Biological Activity

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy with the Division of Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of Silesia, Jagiellońska 4, Sosnowiec 41-200, Poland
2
Department of Hygiene, Bioanalysis and Environmental Studies, School of Pharmacy with the Division of Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of Silesia, Kasztanowa 3A, Sosnowiec 41-200, Poland
3
Silesian Medical College in Katowice, Mickiewicza 29, Katowice 40-085, Poland
4
Department of Drug Technology, School of Pharmacy with the Division of Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of Silesia, Jedności 8, Sosnowiec 41-200, Poland
5
Department of Pathology, School of Pharmacy with the Division of Laboratory Medicine in Sosnowiec, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Ostrogórska 30, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marcello Iriti
Received: 20 October 2015 / Revised: 17 November 2015 / Accepted: 27 November 2015 / Published: 4 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
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Abstract

Bee pollen constitutes a natural source of antioxidants such as phenolic acids and flavonoids, which are responsible for its biological activity. Research has indicated the correlation between dietary polyphenols and cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anticancerogenic, immunostimulating, antianaemic effects, as well as their beneficial influence on osseous tissue. The beneficial effects of bee pollen on health result from the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids which possess anti-inflammatory properties, phytosterol and linolenic acid which play an anticancerogenic role, and polysaccharides which stimulate immunological activity. Polyphenols are absorbed in the alimentary tract, metabolised by CYP450 enzymes, and excreted with urine and faeces. Flavonoids and phenolic acids are characterised by high antioxidative potential, which is closely related to their chemical structure. The high antioxidant potential of phenolic acids is due to the presence and location of hydroxyl groups, a carboxyl group in the immediate vicinity of ortho-diphenolic substituents, and the ethylene group between the phenyl ring and the carboxyl group. As regards flavonoids, essential structural elements are hydroxyl groups at the C5 and C7 positions in the A ring, and at the C3′ and C4′ positions in the B ring, and a hydroxyl group at the C3 position in the C ring. Furthermore, both, the double bond between C2 and C3, and a ketone group at the C4 position in the C ring enhance the antioxidative potential of these compounds. Polyphenols have an ideal chemical structure for scavenging free radicals and for creating chelates with metal ions, which makes them effective antioxidants in vivo. View Full-Text
Keywords: bee pollen; antioxidants; polyphenols; natural product bee pollen; antioxidants; polyphenols; natural product
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Rzepecka-Stojko, A.; Stojko, J.; Kurek-Górecka, A.; Górecki, M.; Kabała-Dzik, A.; Kubina, R.; Moździerz, A.; Buszman, E. Polyphenols from Bee Pollen: Structure, Absorption, Metabolism and Biological Activity. Molecules 2015, 20, 21732-21749.

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