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Molecules 2014, 19(7), 10279-10290; doi:10.3390/molecules190710279

The Natural Product Citral Can Cause Significant Damage to the Hyphal Cell Walls of Magnaporthe grisea

1,2,3, 1,2, 1,2, 4 and 1,2,3,*
1
Institute of Crop Protection, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China
2
The Provincial Key Laboratory for Agricultural Pest Management in Mountainous Region, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China
3
Key Laboratory of Green Pesticide and Agricultural Bioengineering, Ministry of Education of China, Research and Development Center for Fine Chemicals, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China
4
Instrument Center of Institute of Microbiology Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100101, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 June 2014 / Revised: 1 July 2014 / Accepted: 10 July 2014 / Published: 15 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract

In order to find a natural alternative to the synthetic fungicides currently used against the devastating rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea, this study explored the antifungal potential of citral and its mechanism of action. It was found that citral not only inhibited hyphal growth of M. grisea, but also caused a series of marked hyphal morphological and structural alterations. Specifically, citral was tested for antifungal activity against M. grisea in vitro and was found to significantly inhibit colony development and mycelial growth with IC50 and IC90 values of 40.71 and 203.75 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, citral reduced spore germination and germ tube length in a concentration-dependent manner. Following exposure to citral, the hyphal cell surface became wrinkled with folds and cell breakage that were observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). There was damage to hyphal cell walls and membrane structures, loss of villous-like material outside of the cell wall, thinning of the cell wall, and discontinuities formed in the cell membrane following treatment based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This increase in chitinase activity both supports the morphological changes seen in the hyphae, and also suggests a mechanism of action. In conclusion, citral has strong antifungal properties, and treatment with this compound is capable of causing significant damage to the hyphal cell walls of M. grisea. View Full-Text
Keywords: Magnaporthe grisea; antifungal activity; natural product citral; electron microscopy; chitinases Magnaporthe grisea; antifungal activity; natural product citral; electron microscopy; chitinases
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, R.-Y.; Wu, X.-M.; Yin, X.-H.; Liang, J.-N.; Li, M. The Natural Product Citral Can Cause Significant Damage to the Hyphal Cell Walls of Magnaporthe grisea. Molecules 2014, 19, 10279-10290.

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