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Molecules 2014, 19(5), 6294-6308; doi:10.3390/molecules19056294
Article

Evaluation of Four Different Analytical Tools to Determine the Regional Origin of Gastrodia elata and Rehmannia glutinosa on the Basis of Metabolomics Study

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1 College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea 2 School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, Korea 3 College of Pharmacy, Dongduk Women's University, Seoul 136-714, Korea 4 Korea Promotion Institute for Traditional Medicine Industry, Gyeongsan 712-260, Korea 5 Department of Herbology, College of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon University, Daejeon 300-716, Korea 6 Department of Statistics, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul 140-742, Korea 7 Department of Statistics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 March 2014 / Revised: 2 May 2014 / Accepted: 13 May 2014 / Published: 16 May 2014
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Abstract

Chemical profiles of medicinal plants could be dissimilar depending on the cultivation environments, which may influence their therapeutic efficacy. Accordingly, the regional origin of the medicinal plants should be authenticated for correct evaluation of their medicinal and market values. Metabolomics has been found very useful for discriminating the origin of many plants. Choosing the adequate analytical tool can be an essential procedure because different chemical profiles with different detection ranges will be produced according to the choice. In this study, four analytical tools, Fourier transform near‑infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR), 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H‑NMR), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) were applied in parallel to the same samples of two popular medicinal plants (Gastrodia elata and Rehmannia glutinosa) cultivated either in Korea or China. The classification abilities of four discriminant models for each plant were evaluated based on the misclassification rate and Q2 obtained from principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS‑DA), respectively. 1H-NMR and LC-MS, which were the best techniques for G. elata and R. glutinosa, respectively, were generally preferable for origin discrimination over the others. Reasoned by integrating all the results, 1H-NMR is the most prominent technique for discriminating the origins of two plants. Nonetheless, this study suggests that preliminary screening is essential to determine the most suitable analytical tool and statistical method, which will ensure the dependability of metabolomics-based discrimination.
Keywords: traditional medicine; Gastrodia elata; Rehmannia glutinosa; plant metabolomics; origin discrimination; multivariate statistical analysis traditional medicine; Gastrodia elata; Rehmannia glutinosa; plant metabolomics; origin discrimination; multivariate statistical analysis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Lee, D.-K.; Lim, D.K.; Um, J.A.; Lim, C.J.; Hong, J.Y.; Yoon, Y.A.; Ryu, Y.; Kim, H.J.; Cho, H.J.; Park, J.H.; Seo, Y.B.; Kim, K.; Lim, J.; Kwon, S.W.; Lee, J. Evaluation of Four Different Analytical Tools to Determine the Regional Origin of Gastrodia elata and Rehmannia glutinosa on the Basis of Metabolomics Study. Molecules 2014, 19, 6294-6308.

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