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Molecules 2014, 19(5), 6228-6245; doi:10.3390/molecules19056228
Article

Cloning, 3D Modeling and Expression Analysis of Three Vacuolar Invertase Genes from Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz)

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Received: 17 February 2014; in revised form: 2 May 2014 / Accepted: 12 May 2014 / Published: 15 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Synthesis)
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Abstract: Vacuolar invertase is one of the key enzymes in sucrose metabolism that irreversibly catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose to glucose and fructose in plants. In this research, three vacuolar invertase genes, named MeVINV1-3, and with 653, 660 and 639 amino acids, respectively, were cloned from cassava. The motifs of NDPNG (β-fructosidase motif), RDP and WECVD, which are conserved and essential for catalytic activity in the vacuolar invertase family, were found in MeVINV1 and MeVINV2. Meanwhile, in MeVINV3, instead of NDPNG we found the motif NGPDG, in which the three amino acids GPD are different from those in other vacuolar invertases (DPN) that might result in MeVINV3 being an inactivated protein. The N-terminal leader sequence of MeVINVs contains a signal anchor, which is associated with the sorting of vacuolar invertase to vacuole. The overall predicted 3D structure of the MeVINVs consists of a five bladed β-propeller module at N-terminus domain, and forms a β-sandwich module at the C-terminus domain. The active site of the protein is situated in the β-propeller module. MeVINVs are classified in two subfamilies, α and β groups, in which α group members of MeVINV1 and 2 are highly expressed in reproductive organs and tuber roots (considered as sink organs), while β group members of MeVINV3 are highly expressed in leaves (source organs). All MeVINVs are highly expressed in leaves, while only MeVINV1 and 2 are highly expressed in tubers at cassava tuber maturity stage. Thus, MeVINV1 and 2 play an important role in sucrose unloading and starch accumulation, as well in buffering the pools of sucrose, hexoses and sugar phosphates in leaves, specifically at later stages of plant development.
Keywords: cassava; expression analysis; molecular cloning; vacuolar invertase; 3D modeling cassava; expression analysis; molecular cloning; vacuolar invertase; 3D modeling
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yao, Y.; Wu, X.-H.; Geng, M.-T.; Li, R.-M.; Liu, J.; Hu, X.-W.; Guo, J.-C. Cloning, 3D Modeling and Expression Analysis of Three Vacuolar Invertase Genes from Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz). Molecules 2014, 19, 6228-6245.

AMA Style

Yao Y, Wu X-H, Geng M-T, Li R-M, Liu J, Hu X-W, Guo J-C. Cloning, 3D Modeling and Expression Analysis of Three Vacuolar Invertase Genes from Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz). Molecules. 2014; 19(5):6228-6245.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yao, Yuan; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Geng, Meng-Ting; Li, Rui-Mei; Liu, Jiao; Hu, Xin-Wen; Guo, Jian-Chun. 2014. "Cloning, 3D Modeling and Expression Analysis of Three Vacuolar Invertase Genes from Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz)." Molecules 19, no. 5: 6228-6245.



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