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Molecules 2014, 19(5), 5898-5912; doi:10.3390/molecules19055898
Article

Comparative Study on the Antioxidant and Anti-Toxoplasma Activities of Vanillin and Its Resorcinarene Derivative

1, 2, 1, 3, 3, 3, 3 and 1,*
1 Laboratory of Malaria and Toxoplasmosis Biology/LABMAT, Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Bioscience Center, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Av. Salgado Filho, s/n, Lagoa Nova, Natal/RN, CEP 59000-000, Brazil 2 Memory Studies Laboratory, Physiology Department, Bioscience Center, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Av. Salgado Filho, s/n, Lagoa Nova, Natal/RN, CEP 59000-000, Brazil 3 Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry and Polymers, Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Av. Salgado Filho, s/n, Lagoa Nova, Natal/RN, CEP 59000-000, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 February 2014 / Revised: 26 April 2014 / Accepted: 28 April 2014 / Published: 7 May 2014
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Abstract

A resorcinarene derivative of vanillin, resvan, was synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic techniques. We measured the cytotoxicity (in vivo and in vitro), antioxidant and anti-Toxoplasma activities of vanillin and the resorcinarene compound. Here we show that vanillin has a dose-dependent behavior with IC50 of 645 µg/mL through an in vitro cytotoxicity assay. However, we could not observe any cytotoxic response at higher concentrations of resvan (IC50 > 2,000 µg/mL). The in vivo acute toxicity assays of vanillin and resvan exhibited a significant safety margin indicated by a lack of systemic and behavioral toxicity up to 300 mg/kg during the first 30 min, 24 h or 14 days after administration. The obtained derivative showed greater antioxidative activity (84.9%) when comparing to vanillin (19.4%) at 1,000 μg/mL. In addition, vanillin presents anti-Toxoplasma activity, while resvan does not show that feature. Our findings suggest that this particular derivative has an efficient antioxidant activity and a negligible cytotoxic effect, making it a potential target for further biological investigations.
Keywords: vanillin; resorcinarene; antioxidant; anti-Toxoplasma vanillin; resorcinarene; antioxidant; anti-Toxoplasma
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Oliveira, C.B.S.; Meurer, Y.S.R.; Oliveira, M.G.; Medeiros, W.M.T.Q.; Silva, F.O.N.; Brito, A.C.F.; Pontes, D.L.; Andrade-Neto, V.F. Comparative Study on the Antioxidant and Anti-Toxoplasma Activities of Vanillin and Its Resorcinarene Derivative. Molecules 2014, 19, 5898-5912.

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