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Molecules 2014, 19(3), 3460-3470; doi:10.3390/molecules19033460
Article

Metabonomic Analysis of Water Extracts from Different Angelica Roots by 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

1,2
, 2
, 3
, 1
, 3
, 2
 and 1,4,*
1 Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong, China 2 Divison of Life Science and Centre for Chinese Medicine, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong, China 3 Department of Surgery and Cancer, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ, UK 4 Division of Biomedical Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 December 2013 / Revised: 25 February 2014 / Accepted: 13 March 2014 / Published: 20 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemicals: Analytical and Medicinal Chemistry)
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Abstract

Angelica Radix, the roots of the genus Angelica, has been used for more than 2,000 years as a traditional medicine in Eastern Asia. The Chinese Pharmacopoeia records more than 100 herbal formulae containing Angelica roots. There are two common sources of Angelica roots, Angelica sinensis from China and A. gigas from Korea. The two species of Angelica roots differ in their chemical compositions, pharmacological properties and clinical efficacy. 1H-NMR metabolic profiling has recently emerged as a promising quality control method for food and herbal chemistry. We explored the use of 1H-NMR metabolic profiling for the quality control of Angelica Radix. Unlike previous work, we performed the metabolic profiling on hot water extracts, so as to mimic the clinically relevant preparation method. Unsupervised principle component analyses of both the full spectral profile and a selection of targeted molecules revealed a clear differentiation of three types of Angelica roots. In addition, the levels of 13 common metabolites were measured. Statistically significant differences in the levels of glucose, fructose and threonine were found between different sources of Angelica. Ferulic acid, a marker commonly used to evaluate Angelica root, was detected in our samples, but the difference in ferulic acid levels between the samples was not statistically significant. Overall, we successfully applied 1H-NMR metabolic profiling with water extraction to discriminate all three sources of Angelica roots, and obtained quantitative information of many common metabolites.
Keywords: Angelica sinensis; Angelica gigas; Traditional Chinese Medicine; NMR; metabonomics; metabolomics Angelica sinensis; Angelica gigas; Traditional Chinese Medicine; NMR; metabonomics; metabolomics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chan, P.H.; Zhang, W.L.; Lau, C.-H.; Cheung, C.Y.; Keun, H.C.; Tsim, K.W.K.; Lam, H. Metabonomic Analysis of Water Extracts from Different Angelica Roots by 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Molecules 2014, 19, 3460-3470.

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