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Molecules 2014, 19(1), 316-326; doi:10.3390/molecules19010316
Article

Cytoprotective Effect of American Ginseng in a Rat Ethanol Gastric Ulcer Model

1, 1,†, 2,†, 1, 3, 4,5 and 2,*
1 Graduate Institute of Sports Science, National Taiwan Sport University, Taoyuan 33301, Taiwan 2 Department of Sports Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan 3 Department of Hospitality, Tunghai University, Taichung 40704, Taiwan 4 Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan 5 Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 November 2013 / Revised: 14 December 2013 / Accepted: 23 December 2013 / Published: 27 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract

Panax quinquefolium L. (American Ginseng, AG) is one of the most popular herbal medicines in the World. We aimed to investigate whether chronic (28-day) supplementation with AG could protect against ethanol-induced ulcer in gastric tissue. Furthermore, we investigated the possible molecular mechanisms leading to AG-mediated gastric mucosal protection. We randomized 32 male Wistar rats into four groups for treatment (n = 8 per group): supplementation with water (vehicle) and low-dose (AG-1X), medium-dose (AG-2X) and high-dose (AG-5X) AG at 0, 250, 500, and 1250 mg/kg, respectively. In the first experiment, animals were fed vehicle or AG treatments for 4 weeks. At day 29, 75% ethanol was given orally to each animal at 10 mL/kg to induce gastric ulceration for 2 h. In a second experiment, animals were pretreated orally with each treatment for 1 hr before a single oral administration of ethanol (70%, 10 mL/kg). Trend analysis revealed that AG treatments inhibited ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. AG supplementation dose-dependently decreased the pro-inflammatory levels of interleukin 1β and cyclooxygenase 2 and the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins tBid, cytochrome C, and caspases-9 and -3 and increased the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and p-Bad. AG could have pharmacological potential for treating gastric ulcer.
Keywords: American ginseng; gastric ulcer; inflammation; apoptosis American ginseng; gastric ulcer; inflammation; apoptosis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Huang, C.-C.; Chen, Y.-M.; Wang, D.-C.; Chiu, C.-C.; Lin, W.-T.; Huang, C.-Y.; Hsu, M.-C. Cytoprotective Effect of American Ginseng in a Rat Ethanol Gastric Ulcer Model. Molecules 2014, 19, 316-326.

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