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Molecules 2014, 19(1), 316-326; doi:10.3390/molecules19010316

Cytoprotective Effect of American Ginseng in a Rat Ethanol Gastric Ulcer Model

1, 1,†, 2,†, 1, 3, 4,5 and 2,*
1 Graduate Institute of Sports Science, National Taiwan Sport University, Taoyuan 33301, Taiwan 2 Department of Sports Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan 3 Department of Hospitality, Tunghai University, Taichung 40704, Taiwan 4 Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan 5 Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 November 2013 / Revised: 14 December 2013 / Accepted: 23 December 2013 / Published: 27 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
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Panax quinquefolium L. (American Ginseng, AG) is one of the most popular herbal medicines in the World. We aimed to investigate whether chronic (28-day) supplementation with AG could protect against ethanol-induced ulcer in gastric tissue. Furthermore, we investigated the possible molecular mechanisms leading to AG-mediated gastric mucosal protection. We randomized 32 male Wistar rats into four groups for treatment (n = 8 per group): supplementation with water (vehicle) and low-dose (AG-1X), medium-dose (AG-2X) and high-dose (AG-5X) AG at 0, 250, 500, and 1250 mg/kg, respectively. In the first experiment, animals were fed vehicle or AG treatments for 4 weeks. At day 29, 75% ethanol was given orally to each animal at 10 mL/kg to induce gastric ulceration for 2 h. In a second experiment, animals were pretreated orally with each treatment for 1 hr before a single oral administration of ethanol (70%, 10 mL/kg). Trend analysis revealed that AG treatments inhibited ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. AG supplementation dose-dependently decreased the pro-inflammatory levels of interleukin 1β and cyclooxygenase 2 and the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins tBid, cytochrome C, and caspases-9 and -3 and increased the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and p-Bad. AG could have pharmacological potential for treating gastric ulcer.
Keywords: American ginseng; gastric ulcer; inflammation; apoptosis American ginseng; gastric ulcer; inflammation; apoptosis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Huang, C.-C.; Chen, Y.-M.; Wang, D.-C.; Chiu, C.-C.; Lin, W.-T.; Huang, C.-Y.; Hsu, M.-C. Cytoprotective Effect of American Ginseng in a Rat Ethanol Gastric Ulcer Model. Molecules 2014, 19, 316-326.

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