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Molecules 2014, 19(1), 22-40; doi:10.3390/molecules19010022
Article

Physicochemical Characteristics and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Antrodan, a Novel Glycoprotein Isolated from Antrodia cinnamomea Mycelia

1,†, 2,†, 3, 4, 1, 1, 1,*  and 1,*
Received: 11 October 2013; in revised form: 5 December 2013 / Accepted: 6 December 2013 / Published: 19 December 2013
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Abstract: Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) is a unique fungus found inhabiting the rotten wood of Cinnamomum kanehirai. A submerged liquid culture of AC has been developed and its bioproducts have been used to meet the market demand for natural fruiting bodies. AC exhibits anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects. Previously, we isolated polysaccharide AC-2 from AC mycelia by means of alkali extraction with subsequent acid precipitation and found it had a pronounced anti-inflammatory effect. In this study, a novel polysaccharide named “antrodan” was obtained by further purification of AC-2 using Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. Antrodan exhibited a molecular weight of 442 kD and contained a particularly high content of uronic acid (152.6 ± 0.8 mg/g). The protein content was 71.0%, apparently, higher than the carbohydrate content (14.1%), and thus antrodan was characterized as a glycoprotein. Its total glucan content was 15.65%, in which β-glucan (14.20%) was prominently higher than α-glucan (1.45%). Its FTIR confirmed the presence of β-linkages between sugars, and intramolecular amide bonds between sugars and amino acids. Its 1H-NMR spectrum showed that antrodan was a complex union of α- and β-glucans, which had (1→ 4)-linked α-Glcp and (1→ 3)-linked β-Glcp linkages to the carbohydrate chains via asparagine linked to protein site. Biologically, antrodan was confirmed to be totally non-detrimental to RAW 264.7 cell line even at dose as high as 400 μg/mL. It showed potent suppressing effect on the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 cell line. Moreover, antrodan significantly reduced the nitrogen oxide production at doses as low as 18.75 μg/mL.
Keywords: Antrodia cinnamomea; mycelia; glycoprotein; antrodan; structure; anti-inflammatory activity Antrodia cinnamomea; mycelia; glycoprotein; antrodan; structure; anti-inflammatory activity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chiu, C.-H.; Peng, C.-C.; Ker, Y.-B.; Chen, C.-C.; Lee, A.; Chang, W.-L.; Chyau, C.-C.; Peng, R.Y. Physicochemical Characteristics and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Antrodan, a Novel Glycoprotein Isolated from Antrodia cinnamomea Mycelia. Molecules 2014, 19, 22-40.

AMA Style

Chiu C-H, Peng C-C, Ker Y-B, Chen C-C, Lee A, Chang W-L, Chyau C-C, Peng RY. Physicochemical Characteristics and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Antrodan, a Novel Glycoprotein Isolated from Antrodia cinnamomea Mycelia. Molecules. 2014; 19(1):22-40.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chiu, Chun-Hung; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Ker, Yaw-Bee; Chen, Chin-Chu; Lee, Arwen; Chang, Wan-Lin; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Peng, Robert Y. 2014. "Physicochemical Characteristics and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Antrodan, a Novel Glycoprotein Isolated from Antrodia cinnamomea Mycelia." Molecules 19, no. 1: 22-40.


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