Molecules 2013, 18(8), 9623-9640; doi:10.3390/molecules18089623
Article

Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Isolates to Propolis Extract Alone or in Combination with Antimicrobial Drugs

1 Department and Institute of Microbiology and Virology, School of Pharmacy and Division of Laboratory Medicine in Sosnowiec, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jagiellońska 4, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Katowice, Poland 2 Department of Conservative Dentistry with Endodontics, Medical University of Silesia, Pl. Akademicki 17, 41-902 Bytom, Katowice, Poland 3 Department and Institute of Pathology, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Ostrogórska 30, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Katowice, Poland 4 Department Bioanalysis and Environmental Studies, School of Pharmacy and Division of Laboratory Medicine in Sosnowiec, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Kasztanowa 3A, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Katowice, Poland 5 Institute of Chemistry, University of Silesia, ul. Szkolna 9, 40-006 Katowice, Poland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 June 2013; in revised form: 23 July 2013 / Accepted: 26 July 2013 / Published: 12 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess in vitro the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of Polish propolis (EEPP) against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates. The combined effect of EEPP and 10 selected antistaphylococcal drugs on S. aureus clinical cultures was also investigated. EEPP composition was analyzed by a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method. The flavonoid compounds identified in Polish Propolis included flavones, flavonones, flavonolols, flavonols and phenolic acids. EEPP displayed varying effectiveness against twelve S. aureus strains, with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) within the range from 0.39 to 0.78 mg/mL, determined by broth microdilution method. The average MIC was 0.54 ± 0.22 mg/mL, while calculated MIC50 and MIC90 were 0.39 mg/mL and 0.78 mg/mL, respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the EEPP ranged from 0.78 to 3.13 mg/mL. The in vitro combined effect of EEPP and 10 antibacterial drugs was investigated using disk diffusion method-based assay. Addition of EEPP to cefoxitin (FOX), clindamycin (DA), tetracycline (TE), tobramycin (TOB), linezolid (LIN), trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole (SXT), penicillin (P), erythromycin (E) regimen, yielded stronger, cumulative antimicrobial effect, against all tested S. aureus strains than EEPP and chemotherapeutics alone. In the case of ciprofloxacin (CIP) and chloramphenicol (C) no synergism with EEPP was observed.
Keywords: methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA); methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA); ethanolic extract of Polish propolis (EEPP)

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wojtyczka, R.D.; Dziedzic, A.; Idzik, D.; Kępa, M.; Kubina, R.; Kabała-Dzik, A.; Smoleń-Dzirba, J.; Stojko, J.; Sajewicz, M.; Wąsik, T.J. Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Isolates to Propolis Extract Alone or in Combination with Antimicrobial Drugs. Molecules 2013, 18, 9623-9640.

AMA Style

Wojtyczka RD, Dziedzic A, Idzik D, Kępa M, Kubina R, Kabała-Dzik A, Smoleń-Dzirba J, Stojko J, Sajewicz M, Wąsik TJ. Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Isolates to Propolis Extract Alone or in Combination with Antimicrobial Drugs. Molecules. 2013; 18(8):9623-9640.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wojtyczka, Robert D.; Dziedzic, Arkadiusz; Idzik, Danuta; Kępa, Małgorzata; Kubina, Robert; Kabała-Dzik, Agata; Smoleń-Dzirba, Joanna; Stojko, Jerzy; Sajewicz, Mieczysław; Wąsik, Tomasz J. 2013. "Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Isolates to Propolis Extract Alone or in Combination with Antimicrobial Drugs." Molecules 18, no. 8: 9623-9640.

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