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Molecules 2013, 18(8), 10042-10055; doi:10.3390/molecules180810042
Communication

Total Synthesis, Cytotoxic Effects of Damnacanthal, Nordamnacanthal and Related Anthraquinone Analogues

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Received: 22 May 2013; in revised form: 29 June 2013 / Accepted: 16 July 2013 / Published: 20 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Synthesis)
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Abstract: Naturally occurring anthraquinones, damnacanthal (1) and nordamnacanthal (2) were synthesized with modified reaction steps and investigated for their cytotoxicity against the MCF-7 and K-562 cancer cell lines, respectively. Intermediate analogues 2-bromomethyl-1,3-dimethoxyanthraquinone (5, IC50 = 5.70 ± 0.21 and 8.50 ± 1.18 mg/mL), 2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-dimethoxyanthraquinone (6, IC50 = 12.10 ± 0.14 and 14.00 ± 2.13), 2-formyl-1,3-dimethoxyantharquinone (7, IC50 = 13.10 ± 1.02 and 14.80 ± 0.74), 1,3-dimethoxy-2-methylanthraquinone (4, IC50 = 9.40 ± 3.51 and 28.40 ± 2.33), and 1,3-dihydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (3, IC50 = 25.60 ± 0.42 and 28.40 ± 0.79) also exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and K-562 cancer cell lines, respectively. Other structurally related compounds like 1,3-dihydroxyanthraquinone (13a, IC50 = 19.70 ± 0.35 and 14.50 ± 1.28), 1,3-dimethoxyanthraquinone (13b, IC50 = 6.50 ± 0.66 and 5.90 ± 0.95) were also showed good cytotoxicity. The target compound damnacanthal (1) was found to be the most cytotoxic against the MCF-7 and K-562 cancer cell lines, with IC50 values of 3.80 ± 0.57 and 5.50 ± 1.26, respectively. The structures of all compounds were elucidated with the help of detailed spectroscopic techniques.
Keywords: Anthraquinone; damnacanthal; nordamnacanthal; MCF-7; K-562; cytotoxic effects Anthraquinone; damnacanthal; nordamnacanthal; MCF-7; K-562; cytotoxic effects
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Akhtar, M.N.; Zareen, S.; Yeap, S.K.; Ho, W.Y.; Lo, K.M.; Hasan, A.; Alitheen, N.B. Total Synthesis, Cytotoxic Effects of Damnacanthal, Nordamnacanthal and Related Anthraquinone Analogues. Molecules 2013, 18, 10042-10055.

AMA Style

Akhtar MN, Zareen S, Yeap SK, Ho WY, Lo KM, Hasan A, Alitheen NB. Total Synthesis, Cytotoxic Effects of Damnacanthal, Nordamnacanthal and Related Anthraquinone Analogues. Molecules. 2013; 18(8):10042-10055.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Akhtar, Muhammad N.; Zareen, Seema; Yeap, Swee K.; Ho, Wan Y.; Lo, Kong M.; Hasan, Aurangzeb; Alitheen, Noorjahan B. 2013. "Total Synthesis, Cytotoxic Effects of Damnacanthal, Nordamnacanthal and Related Anthraquinone Analogues." Molecules 18, no. 8: 10042-10055.


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