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Metabolomics in Adult and Pediatric Nephrology
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Puericulture Institute and Neonatal Section, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria, Cagliari 09131, Italy
Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Cagliari, Cagliari 09131, Italy
Department of Laboratory Medicine, IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, University-Hospital Genoa, Genoa 16132, Italy
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 March 2013; in revised form: 26 March 2013 / Accepted: 18 April 2013 / Published: 24 April 2013
Abstract: Metabolomics, the latest of the “omics” sciences, has a non-selective approach and can thus lead to the identification of all the metabolites (molecules < 1 kDa) in a biological system. The metabolomic profile can be considered the most predictive phenotype capable of evaluating epigenetic modifications determined by external factors. It is so close to the phenotype as to be considered the phenotype itself in its unique individuality (fingerprinting), both in health (phenome), and disease (diseasome). Urine, compared to other biological liquids, has the advantage of being a complex fluid with many components, including intermediate metabolites. Metabolomics may thus play a role in the study of different kidney diseases and overcome diagnostic difficulties. We shall present the studies that to our knowledge have been published on Nephrology and Pediatric Nephrology. Some are experimental while others are clinical. We have not considered carcinomas and transplantations. Although scarce, the data on adults and the very few ones in pediatrics are quite interesting. Further studies on kidneys are needed to determine the practical clinical impact of metabolomics in kidney renal pathologies. The “multiplatform” “omic” study of urine and namely metabolomics can contribute to improving early diagnosis and the outcome of kidney diseases.
Keywords: metabolomics; kidney; adult; children; nephrology
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Fanos, V.; Fanni, C.; Ottonello, G.; Noto, A.; Dessì, A.; Mussap, M. Metabolomics in Adult and Pediatric Nephrology. Molecules 2013, 18, 4844-4857.
Fanos V, Fanni C, Ottonello G, Noto A, Dessì A, Mussap M. Metabolomics in Adult and Pediatric Nephrology. Molecules. 2013; 18(5):4844-4857.
Fanos, Vassilios; Fanni, Claudia; Ottonello, Giovanni; Noto, Antonio; Dessì, Angelica; Mussap, Michele. 2013. "Metabolomics in Adult and Pediatric Nephrology." Molecules 18, no. 5: 4844-4857.