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Molecules 2013, 18(4), 4308-4327; doi:10.3390/molecules18044308
Article

Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Insecticidal Activities of Hedychium Essential Oils

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1 Thad Cochran Southern Horticultural Laboratory, USDA-ARS, 810 Hwy 26 W, Poplarville, MS 39470, USA 2 National Center for Natural Products Research, The University of Mississippi, MS 38677, USA 3 Natural Products Utilization Research Unit (NPURU), Thad Cochran National Center for Natural Products Research, USDA-ARS, University of Mississippi, MS 38677, USA 4 Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Anadolu University, Eskisehir 26470, Turkey 5 Botany and Microbiology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia 6 Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology (CMAVE), USDA-ARS, 1600 S.W. 23rd Drive, Gainesville, FL 32608, USA 7 National Biological Control Laboratory, Biological Control of Pests Research Unit, USDA-ARS, 59 Lee Road, Stoneville, MS 38776, USA 8 Southern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1100 Robert E. Blvd, New Orleans, LA 70124, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 February 2013 / Revised: 29 March 2013 / Accepted: 29 March 2013 / Published: 11 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
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Abstract

The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been documented, and their use as “biocides” is gaining popularity. The aims of this study were to analyze the chemical composition and assess the biological activities of Hedychium essential oils. Oils from 19 Hedychium species and cultivars were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. The antifungal and insecticidal activities of these oils were tested against Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, and C. gloeosporioides, and three insects, the azalea lace bug (Stephanitis pyrioides), the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti), and the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta). Hedychium oils were rich in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, especially 1,8-cineole (0.1%–42%), linalool (<0.1%–56%), a-pinene (3%–17%), b-pinene (4%–31%), and (E)-nerolidol (0.1%–20%). Hedychium oils had no antifungal effect on C. gloeosporioides, C. fragariae, and C. acutatum, but most Hedychium oils effectively killed azalea lace bugs. The oils also show promise as an adult mosquito repellent, but they would make rather poor larvicides or adulticides for mosquito control. Hedychium oils acted either as a fire ant repellent or attractant, depending on plant genotype and oil concentration.
Keywords: Hedychium cultivars; natural botanical insecticides; azalea lace bugs; yellow fever mosquito; red imported fire ants Hedychium cultivars; natural botanical insecticides; azalea lace bugs; yellow fever mosquito; red imported fire ants
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Sakhanokho, H.F.; Sampson, B.J.; Tabanca, N.; Wedge, D.E.; Demirci, B.; Baser, K.H.C.; Bernier, U.R.; Tsikolia, M.; Agramonte, N.M.; Becnel, J.J.; Chen, J.; Rajasekaran, K.; Spiers, J.M. Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Insecticidal Activities of Hedychium Essential Oils. Molecules 2013, 18, 4308-4327.

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