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Protostane and Fusidane Triterpenes: A Mini-Review
Department of Medicinal Chemistry & Pharmacognosy, and WHO Collaborative Center for Traditional Medicine, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
Jiangsu Key Laboratory for TCM Formulae Research, Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210046, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 March 2013; in revised form: 29 March 2013 / Accepted: 1 April 2013 / Published: 5 April 2013
Abstract: Protostane triterpenes belong to a group of tetracyclic triterpene that exhibit unique structural characteristics. Their natural distribution is primarily limited to the genus Alisma of the Alismataceae family, but they have also been occasionally found in other plant genera such as Lobelia, Garcinia, and Leucas. To date, there are 59 known protostane structures. Many of them have been reported to possess biological properties such as improving lipotropism, hepatoprotection, anti-viral activity against hepatitis B and HIV-I virus, anti-cancer activity, as well as reversal of multidrug resistance in cancer cells. On the other hand, fusidanes are fungal products characterized by 29-nor protostane structures. They possess antibiotic properties against staphylococci, including the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Fusidic acid is a representative member which has found clinical applications. This review covers plant sources of the protostanes, their structure elucidation, characteristic structural and spectral properties, as well as biological activities. The fungal sources, structural features, biological activities of fusidanes are also covered in this review. Additionally, the biogenesis of these two types of triterpenes is discussed and a refined pathway is proposed.
Keywords: Alisma; alisol; fusidane; protostane; triterpene
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MDPI and ACS Style
Zhao, M.; Gödecke, T.; Gunn, J.; Duan, J.-A.; Che, C.-T. Protostane and Fusidane Triterpenes: A Mini-Review. Molecules 2013, 18, 4054-4080.
Zhao M, Gödecke T, Gunn J, Duan J-A, Che C-T. Protostane and Fusidane Triterpenes: A Mini-Review. Molecules. 2013; 18(4):4054-4080.
Zhao, Ming; Gödecke, Tanja; Gunn, Jordan; Duan, Jin-Ao; Che, Chun-Tao. 2013. "Protostane and Fusidane Triterpenes: A Mini-Review." Molecules 18, no. 4: 4054-4080.