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Molecules 2013, 18(4), 4054-4080; doi:10.3390/molecules18044054
Review

Protostane and Fusidane Triterpenes: A Mini-Review

1,* , 1, 1, 2 and 1
Received: 6 March 2013 / Revised: 29 March 2013 / Accepted: 1 April 2013 / Published: 5 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids)
Download PDF [409 KB, 18 June 2014; original version 18 June 2014]

Abstract

Protostane triterpenes belong to a group of tetracyclic triterpene that exhibit unique structural characteristics. Their natural distribution is primarily limited to the genus Alisma of the Alismataceae family, but they have also been occasionally found in other plant genera such as Lobelia, Garcinia, and Leucas. To date, there are 59 known protostane structures. Many of them have been reported to possess biological properties such as improving lipotropism, hepatoprotection, anti-viral activity against hepatitis B and HIV-I virus, anti-cancer activity, as well as reversal of multidrug resistance in cancer cells. On the other hand, fusidanes are fungal products characterized by 29-nor protostane structures. They possess antibiotic properties against staphylococci, including the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Fusidic acid is a representative member which has found clinical applications. This review covers plant sources of the protostanes, their structure elucidation, characteristic structural and spectral properties, as well as biological activities. The fungal sources, structural features, biological activities of fusidanes are also covered in this review. Additionally, the biogenesis of these two types of triterpenes is discussed and a refined pathway is proposed.
Keywords: Alisma; alisol; fusidane; protostane; triterpene Alisma; alisol; fusidane; protostane; triterpene
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Zhao, M.; Gödecke, T.; Gunn, J.; Duan, J.-A.; Che, C.-T. Protostane and Fusidane Triterpenes: A Mini-Review. Molecules 2013, 18, 4054-4080.

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