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Anti-Escherichia coli O157:H7 Properties of Purple Prairie Clover and Sainfoin Condensed Tannins
Department of Veterinary Medicine, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot 010020, China
Lethbridge Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, AB T1J 4B1, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 December 2012; in revised form: 31 January 2013 / Accepted: 31 January 2013 / Published: 8 February 2013
Abstract: Condensed tannins (CT) from purple prairie clover (PPC; Dalea purpurea Vent.) and sainfoin (SF; Onobrychis viciifolia) were assessed for anti-Escherichia coli activity by comparing their ability to react with proteins and liposome, cause cell aggregation, and alter outer membrane (OM) morphology and permeability. The PPC CT had greater (P < 0.01) protein-precipitating capacity than SF CT using either bovine serum albumin or ribulose 1,5-disphosphate carboxylase as model proteins. Minimum inhibitory concentration of PPC CT for two strains of E. coli and five strains of E. coli O157:H7 was four to six times lower than that of SF CT. E. coli exposed to 10 µg/mL of both CT had higher (P < 0.05) OM permeability than controls and was greater (P < 0.05) for PPC than for SF CT. Addition of both CT at 50 and 200 µg/mL caused cell aggregation which was more evident (P < 0.05) for PPC than for SF CT. Transmission electron microscopy showed electron dense material on the cell surface when cells were exposed to 50 µg/mL of PPC CT. The greater anti-E. coli activity of PPC than SF CT was due to its enhanced ability to precipitate protein that increased OM permeability and promoted cell aggregation.
Keywords: condensed tannins; E. coli; outer membrane; cell aggregation; protein precipitation
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Liu, X.-L.; Hao, Y.-Q.; Jin, L.; Xu, Z.-J.; McAllister, T.A.; Wang, Y. Anti-Escherichia coli O157:H7 Properties of Purple Prairie Clover and Sainfoin Condensed Tannins. Molecules 2013, 18, 2183-2199.
Liu X-L, Hao Y-Q, Jin L, Xu Z-J, McAllister TA, Wang Y. Anti-Escherichia coli O157:H7 Properties of Purple Prairie Clover and Sainfoin Condensed Tannins. Molecules. 2013; 18(2):2183-2199.
Liu, Xiu-Li; Hao, Yong-Qing; Jin, Long; Xu, Zhong-Jun; McAllister, Tim A.; Wang, Yuxi. 2013. "Anti-Escherichia coli O157:H7 Properties of Purple Prairie Clover and Sainfoin Condensed Tannins." Molecules 18, no. 2: 2183-2199.