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Extraction of Antioxidant Components from Bidens pilosa Flowers and Their Uptake by Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells
Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan
Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Xin-Yi District, Taipei 110, Taiwan
Research Institute of Biotechnology, Hungkuang University, 34 Chung-Chie Road, Shalu District, Taichung 433, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 December 2012; in revised form: 9 January 2013 / Accepted: 22 January 2013 / Published: 25 January 2013
Abstract: Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata (BPR, Asteraceae) is a commonly used folk medicine for treating various disorders such as diabetes, inflammation and hypertension. Recent studies to determine its chemical composition have revealed three di-O-caffeoylquinic acids (DiCQAs) and three polyacetylene glucosides (PGAs) to be among the major bioactive markers. To obtain the major compounds of these two chemical classes, the ethyl acetate fraction (EM) obtained using liquid-liquid partition from the methanol extract resulted in a fraction with the highest total phenolic and total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities in radical scavenging and ferric reducing power assays. To assess the bioavailability of EM, we examined the in vitro uptake using the Caco-2 human colonic cell line. The apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) for each of the compounds within PGAs measured in both apical (AP) to basolateral (BL) and BL to AP was found to preferentially appear BL to AP direction, indicated that a basolateral to apical efflux system was detected in the study. DiCQAs had a lower efflux ratio than those from PGAs (2.32–3.67 vs. 6.03–78.36). Thus, it strongly implies that most of the DiCQAs are better absorbed than the PGAs.
Keywords: Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata; chemical composition; antioxidant; human intestinal Caco-2 cell line; uptake; HPLC-MS
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MDPI and ACS Style
Lee, W.-C.; Peng, C.-C.; Chang, C.-H.; Huang, S.-H.; Chyau, C.-C. Extraction of Antioxidant Components from Bidens pilosa Flowers and Their Uptake by Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells. Molecules 2013, 18, 1582-1601.
Lee W-C, Peng C-C, Chang C-H, Huang S-H, Chyau C-C. Extraction of Antioxidant Components from Bidens pilosa Flowers and Their Uptake by Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells. Molecules. 2013; 18(2):1582-1601.
Lee, Wen-Chin; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Chang, Chi-Huang; Huang, Shiau-Huei; Chyau, Charng-Cherng. 2013. "Extraction of Antioxidant Components from Bidens pilosa Flowers and Their Uptake by Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells." Molecules 18, no. 2: 1582-1601.