Molecules 2013, 18(10), 12500-12537; doi:10.3390/molecules181012500
Review

G-Quadruplexes as Potential Therapeutic Targets for Embryonal Tumors

1 Division of Oncology, University Children's Hospital of Zurich, Zurich 8032, Switzerland 2 Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Faculty of Technology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588, Japan 3 National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tokyo 135-0064, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 August 2013; in revised form: 18 September 2013 / Accepted: 25 September 2013 / Published: 10 October 2013
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [292 KB, uploaded 10 October 2013 14:47 CEST]
Abstract: Embryonal tumors include a heterogeneous group of highly malignant neoplasms that primarily affect infants and children and are characterized by a high rate of mortality and treatment-related morbidity, hence improved therapies are clearly needed. G-quadruplexes are special secondary structures adopted in guanine (G)-rich DNA sequences that are often present in biologically important regions, e.g. at the end of telomeres and in the regulatory regions of oncogenes such as MYC. Owing to the significant roles that both telomeres and MYC play in cancer cell biology, G-quadruplexes have been viewed as emerging therapeutic targets in oncology and as tools for novel anticancer drug design. Several compounds that target these structures have shown promising anticancer activity in tumor xenograft models and some of them have entered Phase II clinical trials. In this review we examine approaches to DNA targeted cancer therapy, summarize the recent developments of G-quadruplex ligands as anticancer drugs and speculate on the future direction of such structures as a potential novel therapeutic strategy for embryonal tumors of the nervous system.
Keywords: embryonal tumors; G-quadruplexes; MYC; telomeres

Article Statistics

Load and display the download statistics.

Citations to this Article

Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Shalaby, T.; Fiaschetti, G.; Nagasawa, K.; Shin-ya, K.; Baumgartner, M.; Grotzer, M. G-Quadruplexes as Potential Therapeutic Targets for Embryonal Tumors. Molecules 2013, 18, 12500-12537.

AMA Style

Shalaby T, Fiaschetti G, Nagasawa K, Shin-ya K, Baumgartner M, Grotzer M. G-Quadruplexes as Potential Therapeutic Targets for Embryonal Tumors. Molecules. 2013; 18(10):12500-12537.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shalaby, Tarek; Fiaschetti, Giulio; Nagasawa, Kazuo; Shin-ya, Kazuo; Baumgartner, Martin; Grotzer, Michael. 2013. "G-Quadruplexes as Potential Therapeutic Targets for Embryonal Tumors." Molecules 18, no. 10: 12500-12537.

Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert