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Molecules 2013, 18(1), 561-573; doi:10.3390/molecules18010561

The Sonodegradation of Caffeic Acid under Ultrasound Treatment: Relation to Stability

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Received: 17 October 2012 / Revised: 16 December 2012 / Accepted: 19 December 2012 / Published: 4 January 2013
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The degradation of caffeic acid under ultrasound treatment in a model system was investigated. The type of solvent and temperature were important factors in determining the outcome of the degradation reactions. Liquid height, ultrasonic intensity and duty cycle only affected degradation rate, but did not change the nature of the degradation. The degradation rate of caffeic acid decreased with increasing temperature. Degradation kinetics of caffeic acid under ultrasound fitted a zero-order reaction from −5 to 25 °C. Caffeic acid underwent decomposition and oligomerization reactions under ultrasound. The degradation products were tentatively identified by FT-IR and HPLC-UV-ESIMS to include the corresponding decarboxylation products and their dimers.
Keywords: ultrasound; caffeic acid; stability; kinetics; degradation ultrasound; caffeic acid; stability; kinetics; degradation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Sun, Y.; Qiao, L.; Ye, X.; Liu, D.; Zhang, X.; Huang, H. The Sonodegradation of Caffeic Acid under Ultrasound Treatment: Relation to Stability. Molecules 2013, 18, 561-573.

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