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Antioxidative Properties of Defatted Dabai Pulp and Peel Prepared by Solid Phase Extraction
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
Laboratory of Halal Science Research, Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 June 2012; in revised form: 31 July 2012 / Accepted: 9 August 2012 / Published: 14 August 2012
Abstract: Solid phase extraction (SPE) using Sep-Pak® cartridges is one of the techniques used for fractionation of antioxidant compounds in waste of dabai oil extraction (defatted dabai parts). The aim of this study was to determine the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity in crude extracts and several SPE fractions from methanolic extract of defatted dabai pulp and peel. Based on SPE, Sep-Pak® cyanopropyl and C18 cartridges were used to fractionate the antioxidant-rich crude extracts into water and methanolic fractions. Analyzed using LC-MS, flavonoids, anthocyanins, saponin derivatives and other unknown antioxidative compounds were detected in the defatted dabai crude extracts and their SPE fractions. Anthocyanins were the major phenolic compounds identified in the defatted dabai peel and detected in most of the SPE fractions. Methanolic fractions of defatted dabai parts embraced higher total phenolics and antioxidant capacity than water fractions. This finding also revealed the crude extracts of defatted dabai peel have the most significant antioxidant properties compared to the methanolic and water fractions studied. The crude extract of defatted dabai parts remain as the most potent antioxidant as it contains mixture of flavonoids, anthocyanins and other potential antioxidants.
Keywords: anthocyanin; antioxidant; dabai; mass spectrometry; solid phase extraction
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MDPI and ACS Style
Khoo, H.E.; Azlan, A.; Ismail, A.; Abas, F. Antioxidative Properties of Defatted Dabai Pulp and Peel Prepared by Solid Phase Extraction. Molecules 2012, 17, 9754-9773.
Khoo HE, Azlan A, Ismail A, Abas F. Antioxidative Properties of Defatted Dabai Pulp and Peel Prepared by Solid Phase Extraction. Molecules. 2012; 17(8):9754-9773.
Khoo, Hock Eng; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Abas, Faridah. 2012. "Antioxidative Properties of Defatted Dabai Pulp and Peel Prepared by Solid Phase Extraction." Molecules 17, no. 8: 9754-9773.