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Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9631-9640; doi:10.3390/molecules17089631
Article

In Vitro Anti-diabetic Activities and Chemical Analysis of Polypeptide-k and Oil Isolated from Seeds of Momordica charantia (Bitter Gourd)

1
, 1
, 2
, 1,2
, 1
, 3
 and 1,*
1 Department of Biomedical Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang Selangor, Malaysia 2 Sports Academy, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang Selangor, Malaysia 3 Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang Selangor, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 July 2012 / Revised: 31 July 2012 / Accepted: 4 August 2012 / Published: 10 August 2012
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Abstract

The amino acid and fatty acid composition of polypeptide k and oil isolated from the seeds of Momordica charantia was analysed. The analysis revealed polypeptide k contained 9 out of 11 essential amino acids, among a total of 18 types of amino acids. Glutamic acid, aspartic acid, arginine and glycine were the most abundant (17.08%, 9.71%, 9.50% and 8.90% of total amino acids, respectively). Fatty acid analysis showed unusually high amounts of C18-0 (stearic acid, 62.31% of total fatty acid). C18-1 (oleic acid) and C18-2 (linoleic acid) were the other major fatty acid detected (12.53% and 10.40%, respectively). The oil was devoid of the short fatty acids (C4-0 to C8-0). Polypeptide k and oil were also subjected to in vitro α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition assays. Both polypeptide k and seed oil showed potent inhibition of α-glucosidase enzyme (79.18% and 53.55% inhibition, respectively). α-Amylase was inhibited by 35.58% and 38.02%, respectively. Collectively, the in vitro assay strongly suggests that both polypeptide k and seed oil from Momordica charantia are potent potential hypoglycemic agents.
Keywords: Momordica charantia; amino acids; fatty acids; α-glucosidase; α-amylase Momordica charantia; amino acids; fatty acids; α-glucosidase; α-amylase
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ahmad, Z.; Zamhuri, K.F.; Yaacob, A.; Siong, C.H.; Selvarajah, M.; Ismail, A.; Hakim, M.N. In Vitro Anti-diabetic Activities and Chemical Analysis of Polypeptide-k and Oil Isolated from Seeds of Momordica charantia (Bitter Gourd). Molecules 2012, 17, 9631-9640.

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