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Molecules 2012, 17(7), 8359-8377; doi:10.3390/molecules17078359
Article

Organic Bee Pollen: Botanical Origin, Nutritional Value, Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant Activity and Microbiological Quality

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Received: 17 May 2012; in revised form: 29 June 2012 / Accepted: 2 July 2012 / Published: 11 July 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
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Abstract: Organic bee pollen (BP, n = 22) harvested from the Douro International Natural Park (DINP, Portugal) was studied. Nine botanical families were found in the mixture of the samples. The water activity and pH ranged 0.21–0.37 and 4.3–5.2, respectively. The BP analyses averaged 67.7% carbohydrates, 21.8% crude protein, 5.2% crude fat and 2.9% ash. The energy ranged from 396.4 to 411.1 kcal/100 g. The principal fatty acid found was linolenic, followed by linoleic acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid. The phenolic and flavonoid contents varied from 12.9 to 19.8 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of extract and from 4.5 to 7.1 mg of catechin equivalents/g of extract, respectively. The scavenger activity and β-carotene bleaching assays values (EC50) were 3.0 ± 0.7 mg/mL and 4.6 mg/mL ± 0.9 mg/mL, respectively. E. coli, sulphite-reducing Clostridia, Salmonella and S. aureus were not found. Since there are studies indicating appreciable differences among BPs from different regions, the full characterization of BP from diverse origins still appears to be a sound research priority in order to obtain reliable data about this beehive product.
Keywords: bee pollen; antioxidant capacity; bioactive compound; fatty acids; microbiological safety; organic food bee pollen; antioxidant capacity; bioactive compound; fatty acids; microbiological safety; organic food
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Feás, X.; Vázquez-Tato, M.P.; Estevinho, L.; Seijas, J.A.; Iglesias, A. Organic Bee Pollen: Botanical Origin, Nutritional Value, Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant Activity and Microbiological Quality. Molecules 2012, 17, 8359-8377.

AMA Style

Feás X, Vázquez-Tato MP, Estevinho L, Seijas JA, Iglesias A. Organic Bee Pollen: Botanical Origin, Nutritional Value, Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant Activity and Microbiological Quality. Molecules. 2012; 17(7):8359-8377.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Feás, Xesús; Vázquez-Tato, M. Pilar; Estevinho, Leticia; Seijas, Julio A.; Iglesias, Antonio. 2012. "Organic Bee Pollen: Botanical Origin, Nutritional Value, Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant Activity and Microbiological Quality." Molecules 17, no. 7: 8359-8377.



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