Molecules 2012, 17(7), 8359-8377; doi:10.3390/molecules17078359
Article

Organic Bee Pollen: Botanical Origin, Nutritional Value, Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant Activity and Microbiological Quality

1 Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-27080, Lugo, Spain 2 CIMO-Mountain Research Center, Agricultural College of Bragança, Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, E-5301-855, Bragança, Portugal 3 Department of Anatomy and Animal Production, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-27002, Lugo, Galicia, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 May 2012; in revised form: 29 June 2012 / Accepted: 2 July 2012 / Published: 11 July 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [492 KB, uploaded 11 July 2012 09:02 CEST]
Abstract: Organic bee pollen (BP, n = 22) harvested from the Douro International Natural Park (DINP, Portugal) was studied. Nine botanical families were found in the mixture of the samples. The water activity and pH ranged 0.21–0.37 and 4.3–5.2, respectively. The BP analyses averaged 67.7% carbohydrates, 21.8% crude protein, 5.2% crude fat and 2.9% ash. The energy ranged from 396.4 to 411.1 kcal/100 g. The principal fatty acid found was linolenic, followed by linoleic acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid. The phenolic and flavonoid contents varied from 12.9 to 19.8 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of extract and from 4.5 to 7.1 mg of catechin equivalents/g of extract, respectively. The scavenger activity and β-carotene bleaching assays values (EC50) were 3.0 ± 0.7 mg/mL and 4.6 mg/mL ± 0.9 mg/mL, respectively. E. coli, sulphite-reducing Clostridia, Salmonella and S. aureus were not found. Since there are studies indicating appreciable differences among BPs from different regions, the full characterization of BP from diverse origins still appears to be a sound research priority in order to obtain reliable data about this beehive product.
Keywords: bee pollen; antioxidant capacity; bioactive compound; fatty acids; microbiological safety; organic food

Article Statistics

Load and display the download statistics.

Citations to this Article

Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Feás, X.; Vázquez-Tato, M.P.; Estevinho, L.; Seijas, J.A.; Iglesias, A. Organic Bee Pollen: Botanical Origin, Nutritional Value, Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant Activity and Microbiological Quality. Molecules 2012, 17, 8359-8377.

AMA Style

Feás X, Vázquez-Tato MP, Estevinho L, Seijas JA, Iglesias A. Organic Bee Pollen: Botanical Origin, Nutritional Value, Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant Activity and Microbiological Quality. Molecules. 2012; 17(7):8359-8377.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Feás, Xesús; Vázquez-Tato, M. Pilar; Estevinho, Leticia; Seijas, Julio A.; Iglesias, Antonio. 2012. "Organic Bee Pollen: Botanical Origin, Nutritional Value, Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant Activity and Microbiological Quality." Molecules 17, no. 7: 8359-8377.

Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert