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Molecules 2012, 17(5), 4836-4850; doi:10.3390/molecules17054836
Article

Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils of Satureja thymbra Growing Wild in Libya

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1 Institute of Botany and Botanical Garden “Jevremovac”, Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia 2 Department of botany, Faculty of Science, University of Al-Gabel Al-Garbe, Zintan, Libya 3 Mycological Laboratory, Department of Plant Physiology, University of Belgrade-Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stanković” Bulevar Despota Stefana 142, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia 4 Institute for Medicinal Plant Research “Dr Josif Pančić”, Tadeuša Košćuška 1, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 February 2012 / Revised: 16 April 2012 / Accepted: 16 April 2012 / Published: 26 April 2012
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Abstract

The composition of essential oil isolated from Satureja thymbra, growing wild in Libya, was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The essential oil was characterized by γ-terpinene (39.23%), thymol (25.16%), p-cymene (7.17%) and carvacrol (4.18%) as the major constituents. Antioxidant activity was analyzed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method. It possessed strong antioxidant activity (IC50 = 0.0967 mg/mL). The essential oil was also screened for its antimicrobial activity against eight bacterial and eight fungal species, showing excellent antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms used, in particular against the fungi. The oil of S. thymbra showed bacteriostatic activity at 0.001–0.1 mg/mL and was bactericidal at 0.002–0.2 mg/mL; fungistatic effects at 0.001–0.025 mg/mL and fungicidal effects at 0.001–0.1 mg/mL. The main constituents thymol, carvacrol and γ-terpinene also showed strong antimicrobial activity. The commercial fungicide bifonazole showed much lower antifungal activity than the tested oil.
Keywords: Satureja thymbra; essential oil; antimicrobial; antioxidant activity; γ-terpinene; thymol; carvacrol Satureja thymbra; essential oil; antimicrobial; antioxidant activity; γ-terpinene; thymol; carvacrol
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Giweli, A.; Džamić, A.M.; Soković, M.; Ristić, M.S.; Marin, P.D. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils of Satureja thymbra Growing Wild in Libya. Molecules 2012, 17, 4836-4850.

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