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Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils of Satureja thymbra Growing Wild in Libya
Institute of Botany and Botanical Garden “Jevremovac”, Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
Department of botany, Faculty of Science, University of Al-Gabel Al-Garbe, Zintan, Libya
Mycological Laboratory, Department of Plant Physiology, University of Belgrade-Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stanković” Bulevar Despota Stefana 142, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
Institute for Medicinal Plant Research “Dr Josif Pančić”, Tadeuša Košćuška 1, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 February 2012; in revised form: 16 April 2012 / Accepted: 16 April 2012 / Published: 26 April 2012
Abstract: The composition of essential oil isolated from Satureja thymbra, growing wild in Libya, was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The essential oil was characterized by γ-terpinene (39.23%), thymol (25.16%), p-cymene (7.17%) and carvacrol (4.18%) as the major constituents. Antioxidant activity was analyzed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method. It possessed strong antioxidant activity (IC50 = 0.0967 mg/mL). The essential oil was also screened for its antimicrobial activity against eight bacterial and eight fungal species, showing excellent antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms used, in particular against the fungi. The oil of S. thymbra showed bacteriostatic activity at 0.001–0.1 mg/mL and was bactericidal at 0.002–0.2 mg/mL; fungistatic effects at 0.001–0.025 mg/mL and fungicidal effects at 0.001–0.1 mg/mL. The main constituents thymol, carvacrol and γ-terpinene also showed strong antimicrobial activity. The commercial fungicide bifonazole showed much lower antifungal activity than the tested oil.
Keywords: Satureja thymbra; essential oil; antimicrobial; antioxidant activity; γ-terpinene; thymol; carvacrol
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Giweli, A.; Džamić, A.M.; Soković, M.; Ristić, M.S.; Marin, P.D. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils of Satureja thymbra Growing Wild in Libya. Molecules 2012, 17, 4836-4850.
Giweli A, Džamić AM, Soković M, Ristić MS, Marin PD. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils of Satureja thymbra Growing Wild in Libya. Molecules. 2012; 17(5):4836-4850.
Giweli, Abdulhmid; Džamić, Ana M.; Soković, Marina; Ristić, Mihailo S.; Marin, Petar D. 2012. "Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils of Satureja thymbra Growing Wild in Libya." Molecules 17, no. 5: 4836-4850.