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Molecules 2012, 17(2), 1819-1829; doi:10.3390/molecules17021819

Chemical and Biological Analyses of the Essential Oils and Main Constituents of Piper Species

1, 2
3, 3 and 1,*
1 Laboratório de Cromatografia, Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Av. Rodrigo Otávio, 3000, Coroado, CEP 69077-000, Manaus, AM, Brazil 2 Laboratório de Plantas Medicinais e Derivados, Depto de Produtos Naturais, Farmanguinhos FIOCRUZ, Rua Sizenando Nabuco, 100, Manguinhos, CEP 21041-250, RJ, Brazil 3 Laboratório de Bioquímica de Tripanosomatídeos, IOC, FIOCRUZ, Av. Brasil, 4365, Manguinhos, CEP 21045-900, RJ, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 December 2011 / Revised: 26 January 2012 / Accepted: 7 February 2012 / Published: 13 February 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
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The essential oils obtained from leaves of Piper duckei and Piper demeraranum by hydrodistillation were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main constituents found in P. demeraranum oil were limonene (19.3%) and β-elemene (33.1%) and in P. duckei oil the major components found were germacrene D (14.7%) and trans-caryophyllene (27.1%). P. demeraranum and P. duckei oils exhibited biological activity, with IC50 values between 15 to 76 μg mL−1 against two Leishmania species, P. duckei oil being the most active. The cytotoxicity of the essential oils on mice peritoneal macrophage cells was insignificant, compared with the toxicity of pentamidine. The main mono- and sesquiterpene, limonene (IC50 = 278 μM) and caryophyllene (IC50 = 96 μM), were tested against the strains of Leishmania amazonensis, and the IC50 values of these compounds were lower than those found for the essential oils of the Piper species. The HET-CAM test was used to evaluate the irritation potential of these oils as topical products, showing that these oils can be used as auxiliary medication in cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis, with less side effects and lower costs.
Keywords: Piper duckei; Piper demeraranum; essential oil; Leishmaniasis; HET-CAM Piper duckei; Piper demeraranum; essential oil; Leishmaniasis; HET-CAM
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Moura do Carmo, D.F.; Amaral, A.C.F.; Machado, G.M.C.; Leon, L.L.; Silva, J.R.A. Chemical and Biological Analyses of the Essential Oils and Main Constituents of Piper Species. Molecules 2012, 17, 1819-1829.

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