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Phenolic Compounds Characterization and Biological Activities of Citrus aurantium Bloom
Department of Science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran 14515, Iran
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Sciences, University of Riau, Pekanbaru, Riau 28143, Indonesia
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad Branch, Mashhad 91735-413, Iran
Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 November 2011; in revised form: 22 December 2011 / Accepted: 23 December 2011 / Published: 30 January 2012
Abstract: Citrus plants are known to possess beneficial biological activities for human health. In addition, ethnopharmacological application of plants is a good tool to explore their bioactivities and active compounds. This research was carried out to evaluate the phenolic and flavonoid analysis, antioxidant properties, anti inflammatory and anti cancer activity of Citrus aurantium bloom. The total phenolics and flavonoids results revealed that methanolic extract contained high total phenolics and flavonoids compared to ethanolic and boiling water extracts. The obtained total phenolics value for methanolic Citrus aurantium bloom extract was 4.55 ± 0.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry weight (DW), and for total flavonoids it was 3.83 ± 0.05 mg rutin equivalent/g DW. In addition, the RP-HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids indicated the presence of gallic acid, pyrogallol, syringic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, quercetin and naringin as bioactive compounds. The antioxidant activity of Citrus aurantium bloom were examined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay and the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP). The free radical scavenging and ferric reducing power activities were higher for the methanolic extract of Citrus aurantium bloom at a concentration of 300 μg/mL, with values of 55.3% and 51.7%, respectively, as compared to the corresponding boiling water and ethanolic extracts, but the activities were lower than those of antioxidant standards such as BHT and α-tocopherol. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory result of methanolic extract showed appreciable reduction in nitric oxide production of stimulated RAW 264.7 cells at the presence of plant extract. Apart from that, the anticancer activity of the methanolic extract was investigated in vitro against human cancer cell lines (MCF-7; MDA-MB-231), human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) and Chang cell as a normal human hepatocyte. The obtained result demonstrated the moderate to appreciable activities against all cell line tested and the compounds present in the extracts are non-toxic which make them suitable as potential therapeutics.
Keywords: Citrus aurantium bloom; HPLC; antioxidant properties; anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity
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Karimi, E.; Oskoueian, E.; Hendra, R.; Oskoueian, A.; Jaafar, H.Z.E. Phenolic Compounds Characterization and Biological Activities of Citrus aurantium Bloom. Molecules 2012, 17, 1203-1218.
Karimi E, Oskoueian E, Hendra R, Oskoueian A, Jaafar HZE. Phenolic Compounds Characterization and Biological Activities of Citrus aurantium Bloom. Molecules. 2012; 17(2):1203-1218.
Karimi, Ehsan; Oskoueian, Ehsan; Hendra, Rudi; Oskoueian, Armin; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E. 2012. "Phenolic Compounds Characterization and Biological Activities of Citrus aurantium Bloom." Molecules 17, no. 2: 1203-1218.