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Molecules 2012, 17(10), 12312-12329; doi:10.3390/molecules171012312
Article

Bioassays Against Pinewood Nematode: Assessment of a Suitable Dilution Agent and Screening for Bioactive Essential Oils

1, 2, 2, 3, 4, 2, 2, 2 and 1,*
Received: 21 September 2012 / Revised: 10 October 2012 / Accepted: 10 October 2012 / Published: 19 October 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
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Abstract

Acetone was investigated and found to be an appropriate alternative to Triton X-100 as a solvent of essential oils in bioassays aimed to investigate their effects on pinewood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) mortality. Therefore it was used as dilution agent to screen the effectiveness of fifty two essential oils against this pest. Thirteen essential oils were highly effective, resulting in more than 90% pinewood nematode mortality at 2 mg/mL, with six of them resulting in 100% mortality. LC100 values ranged between 0.50 mg/mL and 0.83 mg/mL for the essential oils of Origanum vulgare and Satureja montana, respectively. Essential oils were submitted to gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and their chemical composition established. Data from essential oils with 100% mortality at 2 mg/mL and other essential oils previously found to have LC100 ≤ 2 mg/mL was combined, their chemical profiles investigated by correspondences analysis plus automatic classification.
Keywords: Bursaphelenchus xylophilus; essential oils; nematicide activity; acetone; Triton X-100 Bursaphelenchus xylophilus; essential oils; nematicide activity; acetone; Triton X-100
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Barbosa, P.; Faria, J.M.S.; Mendes, M.D.; Dias, L.S.; Tinoco, M.T.; Barroso, J.G.; Pedro, L.G.; Figueiredo, A.C.; Mota, M. Bioassays Against Pinewood Nematode: Assessment of a Suitable Dilution Agent and Screening for Bioactive Essential Oils. Molecules 2012, 17, 12312-12329.

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