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Bioassays Against Pinewood Nematode: Assessment of a Suitable Dilution Agent and Screening for Bioactive Essential Oils
NemaLab-ICAAM, Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Évora, 7002-554 Évora, Portugal
Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências de Lisboa, DBV, IBB, Centro de Biotecnologia Vegetal, C2, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal
Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Évora, 7002-554 Évora, Portugal
ICAAM, Departamento de Química, Universidade de Évora, 7000-671 Évora, Portugal
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 September 2012; in revised form: 10 October 2012 / Accepted: 10 October 2012 / Published: 19 October 2012
Abstract: Acetone was investigated and found to be an appropriate alternative to Triton X-100 as a solvent of essential oils in bioassays aimed to investigate their effects on pinewood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) mortality. Therefore it was used as dilution agent to screen the effectiveness of fifty two essential oils against this pest. Thirteen essential oils were highly effective, resulting in more than 90% pinewood nematode mortality at 2 mg/mL, with six of them resulting in 100% mortality. LC100 values ranged between 0.50 mg/mL and 0.83 mg/mL for the essential oils of Origanum vulgare and Satureja montana, respectively. Essential oils were submitted to gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and their chemical composition established. Data from essential oils with 100% mortality at 2 mg/mL and other essential oils previously found to have LC100 ≤ 2 mg/mL was combined, their chemical profiles investigated by correspondences analysis plus automatic classification.
Keywords: Bursaphelenchus xylophilus; essential oils; nematicide activity; acetone; Triton X-100
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MDPI and ACS Style
Barbosa, P.; Faria, J.M.S.; Mendes, M.D.; Dias, L.S.; Tinoco, M.T.; Barroso, J.G.; Pedro, L.G.; Figueiredo, A.C.; Mota, M. Bioassays Against Pinewood Nematode: Assessment of a Suitable Dilution Agent and Screening for Bioactive Essential Oils. Molecules 2012, 17, 12312-12329.
Barbosa P, Faria JMS, Mendes MD, Dias LS, Tinoco MT, Barroso JG, Pedro LG, Figueiredo AC, Mota M. Bioassays Against Pinewood Nematode: Assessment of a Suitable Dilution Agent and Screening for Bioactive Essential Oils. Molecules. 2012; 17(10):12312-12329.
Barbosa, Pedro; Faria, Jorge M. S.; Mendes, Marta D.; Dias, Luís Silva; Tinoco, Maria Teresa; Barroso, José G.; Pedro, Luis G.; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Mota, Manuel. 2012. "Bioassays Against Pinewood Nematode: Assessment of a Suitable Dilution Agent and Screening for Bioactive Essential Oils." Molecules 17, no. 10: 12312-12329.