Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
Recombinant VAA-I from Viscum album Induces Apoptotic Cell Death of Hepatocellular Carcinoma SMMC7721 Cells
Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, the First Clinical Hospital, Jilin University, Jilin 130021, China
Department of General Surgery, the Affiliated Hospital, Beihua University, Jilin 132000, China
The College of Pharmacy, Beihua University, Jilin 132013, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 June 2012; in revised form: 30 August 2012 / Accepted: 3 September 2012 / Published: 26 September 2012
Abstract: Researchers have proposed that VAA-I, a specific plant lectin found in Viscum album, has therapeutic effects on cancer and autoimmune diseases. VAA-I has shown some promising treatment results in some types of tumor cell lines, especially SMMC-7721 cells (human hepatocellular carcinoma cells). However, few details are known about the mechanism and process of cell death induced by VAA-I in tumor cells. In this study, the cell morphology results showed that SMMC-7721 cells treated with VAA-I exhibited several features typical of apoptotic cell death, which was confirmed by the Caspase inhibition assay. Fluo-3-acetoxymethyl ester (AM) fluorescence imaging techniques showed that rVAA-I significantly elevated the intracellular calcium level ([Ca2+]i) in SMMC-7721 cells. These findings suggest that apoptosis may play the most important role in SMMC-7721 cell death induced by rVAA-I. Finally, in the SMMC-7721 cells treated with rVAA-I, a series of genes in the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway were expressed differentially, and further found that PI 3-kinase pathway is involved in rVAA-I signal transduction in SMMC-7721 cells.
Keywords: Viscum album; rVAA-I; apoptosis; phosphoinositide 3-kinase
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Yang, X.; Jiang, S.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, P.; Xie, S.; Wang, G. Recombinant VAA-I from Viscum album Induces Apoptotic Cell Death of Hepatocellular Carcinoma SMMC7721 Cells. Molecules 2012, 17, 11435-11446.
Yang X, Jiang S, Liu Y, Zhang P, Xie S, Wang G. Recombinant VAA-I from Viscum album Induces Apoptotic Cell Death of Hepatocellular Carcinoma SMMC7721 Cells. Molecules. 2012; 17(10):11435-11446.
Yang, Xueliang; Jiang, Shuang; Liu, Yahui; Zhang, Ping; Xie, Shuli; Wang, Guangyi. 2012. "Recombinant VAA-I from Viscum album Induces Apoptotic Cell Death of Hepatocellular Carcinoma SMMC7721 Cells." Molecules 17, no. 10: 11435-11446.