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Molecules 2012, 17(1), 15-33; doi:10.3390/molecules17010015

HPLC Analysis of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Compressed Propane Extracts from Piper amalago L. with Antileishmanial Activity

1
Departamento de Farmácia, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, 87020-900, Maringá, Paraná, Brazil
2
Departamento de Engenharia Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, 87020-900, Maringá, Paraná, Brazil
3
Laboratório de Bioquímica de Tripanossomatídeos, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, 21040-360, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 October 2011 / Revised: 5 December 2011 / Accepted: 14 December 2011 / Published: 22 December 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract

Piper amalago L. leaves were extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide and compressed propane under different conditions, and with chloroform by the conventional maceration method. These methods were compared for the pyrrolidine alkaloid content. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SFE-CO2) at 313 K and 12.55 MPa showed the highest selectivity for the main compound (600.53 mg/g of extract). A gradient high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated to quantify the alkaloid N-[7-(3′,4′-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2(Z),4(Z)-heptadienoyl]pyrrolidine (1) in the extracts. The HPLC method showed linearity, precision and accuracy, allowing the quantitative analysis of the alkaloid in all the samples. All the extracts were tested against the promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis. The antileishmanial activity was evaluated in terms of inhibitory concentration for 50% of protozoa (IC50). The cytotoxicity was also evaluated against J774A1 macrophages, and the cytotoxic concentrations for 50% of macrophages were obtained (CC50). The SFE-CO2 (313 K; 12.55 MPa) extract showed the highest antileishmanial activity with the following IC50 values of 16 and 7 µg/mL against the promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes forms, respectively. The extract showed low cytotoxicity with a CC50 value of 93 µg/mL.
Keywords: Piper amalago L.; pyrrolidine alkaloid; supercritical carbon dioxide; HPLC validation; antileishmanial activity Piper amalago L.; pyrrolidine alkaloid; supercritical carbon dioxide; HPLC validation; antileishmanial activity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Carrara, V.S.; Serra, L.Z.; Cardozo-Filho, L.; Cunha-Júnior, E.F.; Torres-Santos, E.C.; Cortez, D.A.G. HPLC Analysis of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Compressed Propane Extracts from Piper amalago L. with Antileishmanial Activity. Molecules 2012, 17, 15-33.

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