Molecules 2012, 17(1), 15-33; doi:10.3390/molecules17010015
Article

HPLC Analysis of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Compressed Propane Extracts from Piper amalago L. with Antileishmanial Activity

1, 1, 2, 3, 3 and 1,* email
Received: 2 October 2011; in revised form: 5 December 2011 / Accepted: 14 December 2011 / Published: 22 December 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Piper amalago L. leaves were extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide and compressed propane under different conditions, and with chloroform by the conventional maceration method. These methods were compared for the pyrrolidine alkaloid content. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SFE-CO2) at 313 K and 12.55 MPa showed the highest selectivity for the main compound (600.53 mg/g of extract). A gradient high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated to quantify the alkaloid N-[7-(3′,4′-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2(Z),4(Z)-heptadienoyl]pyrrolidine (1) in the extracts. The HPLC method showed linearity, precision and accuracy, allowing the quantitative analysis of the alkaloid in all the samples. All the extracts were tested against the promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis. The antileishmanial activity was evaluated in terms of inhibitory concentration for 50% of protozoa (IC50). The cytotoxicity was also evaluated against J774A1 macrophages, and the cytotoxic concentrations for 50% of macrophages were obtained (CC50). The SFE-CO2 (313 K; 12.55 MPa) extract showed the highest antileishmanial activity with the following IC50 values of 16 and 7 µg/mL against the promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes forms, respectively. The extract showed low cytotoxicity with a CC50 value of 93 µg/mL.
Keywords: Piper amalago L.; pyrrolidine alkaloid; supercritical carbon dioxide; HPLC validation; antileishmanial activity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Carrara, V.S.; Serra, L.Z.; Cardozo-Filho, L.; Cunha-Júnior, E.F.; Torres-Santos, E.C.; Cortez, D.A.G. HPLC Analysis of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Compressed Propane Extracts from Piper amalago L. with Antileishmanial Activity. Molecules 2012, 17, 15-33.

AMA Style

Carrara VS, Serra LZ, Cardozo-Filho L, Cunha-Júnior EF, Torres-Santos EC, Cortez DAG. HPLC Analysis of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Compressed Propane Extracts from Piper amalago L. with Antileishmanial Activity. Molecules. 2012; 17(1):15-33.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Carrara, Vanessa da Silva; Serra, Lara Zampar; Cardozo-Filho, Lúcio; Cunha-Júnior, Edézio F.; Torres-Santos, Eduardo C.; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia. 2012. "HPLC Analysis of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Compressed Propane Extracts from Piper amalago L. with Antileishmanial Activity." Molecules 17, no. 1: 15-33.

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