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Acute Toxicity and Hepatotoxicokinetic Studies of Tamarindus indica Extract
Applied and Environmental Microbiology Research Group, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag 1314, Alice, 5700 Eastern Cape, South Africa
Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, 410002, Enugu State, Nigeria
Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, 410002, Enugu State, Nigeria
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 August 2011; in revised form: 24 August 2011 / Accepted: 29 August 2011 / Published: 31 August 2011
Abstract: Tamarindus indica is widely used as a food and beverage and in traditional medicine. The apparent lack of dose standardization in herbal medicine necessitates the evaluation of the lethality T. indica on Artemia salina nauplii and chicken embryos via in vitro and in vivo techniques. Furthermore, hepatotoxicokinetics of the crude extract and fractions on Wister rats was also assessed. At concentrations of 200, 20 and 2 µg/mL, crude extract and fractions showed brine shrimp death percentages ranging from 86.70% to 3.30% and the sub-fractions showed death percentage ranges of 46.70% to 3.30%. Calculated LD50 values ranged from 832 µg/mL to 5,019 µg/mL. Dosing Wister rats with 25% and 50% concentration of LD50 determined for crude extract and fractions on chicken embryos showed an elevation in the ALT and AST levels in the serum. Brine shrimps and chicken embryos showed a positive correlation, with R2 values of 0.541 and 0.588 (P ≤ 0.05) for fractions and subfractions, respectively, as media for the lethality assay. Dose standardization in folk herbal medicine is imperative as T. indica used as food and medicine has been shown to be toxic at high doses. Brine shrimp and chicken embryos may be comparably used as medium for toxicity assay.
Keywords: brine shrimp; chicken embryos; hepatotoxicokinetics; fraction; liver enzymes
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Nwodo, U.U.; Ngene, A.A.; Anaga, A.O.; Chigor, V.N.; Henrietta, I.I.; Okoh, A.I. Acute Toxicity and Hepatotoxicokinetic Studies of Tamarindus indica Extract. Molecules 2011, 16, 7415-7427.
Nwodo UU, Ngene AA, Anaga AO, Chigor VN, Henrietta II, Okoh AI. Acute Toxicity and Hepatotoxicokinetic Studies of Tamarindus indica Extract. Molecules. 2011; 16(9):7415-7427.
Nwodo, Uchechukwu U.; Ngene, Augustine A.; Anaga, Aruh O.; Chigor, Vincent N.; Henrietta, Igbinosa I.; Okoh, Anthony I. 2011. "Acute Toxicity and Hepatotoxicokinetic Studies of Tamarindus indica Extract." Molecules 16, no. 9: 7415-7427.