Next Article in Journal
Mathematical Evaluation of the Amino Acid and Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Activities of Fruits from Different Apricot Cultivars
Previous Article in Journal
Antioxidant Capacity of Ocimum basilicum L. and Origanum vulgare L. Extracts
Molecules 2011, 16(9), 7415-7427; doi:10.3390/molecules16097415
Article

Acute Toxicity and Hepatotoxicokinetic Studies of Tamarindus indica Extract

1,* , 2
,
3
,
1
,
1
 and
1
Received: 2 August 2011 / Revised: 24 August 2011 / Accepted: 29 August 2011 / Published: 31 August 2011
Download PDF [195 KB, uploaded 18 June 2014]

Abstract

Tamarindus indica is widely used as a food and beverage and in traditional medicine. The apparent lack of dose standardization in herbal medicine necessitates the evaluation of the lethality T. indica on Artemia salina nauplii and chicken embryos via in vitro and in vivo techniques. Furthermore, hepatotoxicokinetics of the crude extract and fractions on Wister rats was also assessed. At concentrations of 200, 20 and 2 µg/mL, crude extract and fractions showed brine shrimp death percentages ranging from 86.70% to 3.30% and the sub-fractions showed death percentage ranges of 46.70% to 3.30%. Calculated LD50 values ranged from 832 µg/mL to 5,019 µg/mL. Dosing Wister rats with 25% and 50% concentration of LD50 determined for crude extract and fractions on chicken embryos showed an elevation in the ALT and AST levels in the serum. Brine shrimps and chicken embryos showed a positive correlation, with R2 values of 0.541 and 0.588 (P ≤ 0.05) for fractions and subfractions, respectively, as media for the lethality assay. Dose standardization in folk herbal medicine is imperative as T. indica used as food and medicine has been shown to be toxic at high doses. Brine shrimp and chicken embryos may be comparably used as medium for toxicity assay.
Keywords: brine shrimp; chicken embryos; hepatotoxicokinetics; fraction; liver enzymes brine shrimp; chicken embryos; hepatotoxicokinetics; fraction; liver enzymes
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote
MDPI and ACS Style

Nwodo, U.U.; Ngene, A.A.; Anaga, A.O.; Chigor, V.N.; Henrietta, I.I.; Okoh, A.I. Acute Toxicity and Hepatotoxicokinetic Studies of Tamarindus indica Extract. Molecules 2011, 16, 7415-7427.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here

Comments

Cited By

[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert