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Toxicity of Rhododendron anthopogonoides Essential Oil and Its Constituent Compounds towards Sitophilus zeamais
Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, Haidian District, Beijing 100193, China
Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001, China
State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
Analytical and Testing Center, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 July 2011; in revised form: 15 August 2011 / Accepted: 16 August 2011 / Published: 25 August 2011
Abstract: The screening of several Chinese medicinal plants for insecticidal principles showed that essential oil of Rhododendron anthopogonoides flowering aerial parts possessed significant toxicity against maize weevils, Sitophilus zeamais. A total of 37 components were identified in the essential oil and the main constituents of the essential oil were 4-phenyl-2-butanone (27.22%), nerolidol (8.08%), 1,4-cineole (7.85%), caryophyllene (7.63%) and γ-elemene (6.10%), followed by α-farnesene (4.40%) and spathulenol (4.19%). Repeated bioactivity-directed chromatographic separation on silica gel columns led us to isolate three compounds, namely 4-phenyl-2-butanone, 1,4-cineole, and nerolidol. 4-Phenyl-2-butanone shows pronounced contact toxicity against S. zeamais (LD50 = 6.98 mg/adult) and was more toxic than either 1,4-cineole or nerolidol (LD50 = 50.86 mg/adult and 29.30 mg/adult, respectively) against the maize weevils, while the crude essential oil had a LD50 value of 11.67 mg/adult. 4-Phenyl-2-butanone and 1,4-cineole also possessed strong fumigant toxicity against the adults of S. zeamais (LC50 = 3.80 mg/L and 21.43 mg/L) while the crude essential oil had a LC50 value of 9.66 mg/L.
Keywords: Rhododendron anthopogonoides; Sitophilus zeamais; contact toxicity; fumigant; 4-phenyl-2-butanone; essential oil composition
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Yang, K.; Zhou, Y.X.; Wang, C.F.; Du, S.S.; Deng, Z.W.; Liu, Q.Z.; Liu, Z.L. Toxicity of Rhododendron anthopogonoides Essential Oil and Its Constituent Compounds towards Sitophilus zeamais. Molecules 2011, 16, 7320-7330.
Yang K, Zhou YX, Wang CF, Du SS, Deng ZW, Liu QZ, Liu ZL. Toxicity of Rhododendron anthopogonoides Essential Oil and Its Constituent Compounds towards Sitophilus zeamais. Molecules. 2011; 16(9):7320-7330.
Yang, Kai; Zhou, Yu Xin; Wang, Cheng Fang; Du, Shu Shan; Deng, Zhi Wei; Liu, Qi Zhi; Liu, Zhi Long. 2011. "Toxicity of Rhododendron anthopogonoides Essential Oil and Its Constituent Compounds towards Sitophilus zeamais." Molecules 16, no. 9: 7320-7330.