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Molecules 2011, 16(9), 7320-7330; doi:10.3390/molecules16097320
Article

Toxicity of Rhododendron anthopogonoides Essential Oil and Its Constituent Compounds towards Sitophilus zeamais

1, 2,* , 3, 3, 4, 1 and 1,*
1 Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, Haidian District, Beijing 100193, China 2 Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001, China 3 State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China 4 Analytical and Testing Center, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 July 2011 / Revised: 15 August 2011 / Accepted: 16 August 2011 / Published: 25 August 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract

The screening of several Chinese medicinal plants for insecticidal principles showed that essential oil of Rhododendron anthopogonoides flowering aerial parts possessed significant toxicity against maize weevils, Sitophilus zeamais. A total of 37 components were identified in the essential oil and the main constituents of the essential oil were 4-phenyl-2-butanone (27.22%), nerolidol (8.08%), 1,4-cineole (7.85%), caryophyllene (7.63%) and γ-elemene (6.10%), followed by α-farnesene (4.40%) and spathulenol (4.19%). Repeated bioactivity-directed chromatographic separation on silica gel columns led us to isolate three compounds, namely 4-phenyl-2-butanone, 1,4-cineole, and nerolidol. 4-Phenyl-2-butanone shows pronounced contact toxicity against S. zeamais (LD50 = 6.98 mg/adult) and was more toxic than either 1,4-cineole or nerolidol (LD50 = 50.86 mg/adult and 29.30 mg/adult, respectively) against the maize weevils, while the crude essential oil had a LD50 value of 11.67 mg/adult. 4-Phenyl-2-butanone and 1,4-cineole also possessed strong fumigant toxicity against the adults of S. zeamais (LC50 = 3.80 mg/L and 21.43 mg/L) while the crude essential oil had a LC50 value of 9.66 mg/L.
Keywords: Rhododendron anthopogonoides; Sitophilus zeamais; contact toxicity; fumigant; 4-phenyl-2-butanone; essential oil composition Rhododendron anthopogonoides; Sitophilus zeamais; contact toxicity; fumigant; 4-phenyl-2-butanone; essential oil composition
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Yang, K.; Zhou, Y.X.; Wang, C.F.; Du, S.S.; Deng, Z.W.; Liu, Q.Z.; Liu, Z.L. Toxicity of Rhododendron anthopogonoides Essential Oil and Its Constituent Compounds towards Sitophilus zeamais. Molecules 2011, 16, 7320-7330.

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