Molecules 2011, 16(9), 7320-7330; doi:10.3390/molecules16097320
Article

Toxicity of Rhododendron anthopogonoides Essential Oil and Its Constituent Compounds towards Sitophilus zeamais

1, 2,* email, 3, 3, 4, 1 and 1,* email
Received: 11 July 2011; in revised form: 15 August 2011 / Accepted: 16 August 2011 / Published: 25 August 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The screening of several Chinese medicinal plants for insecticidal principles showed that essential oil of Rhododendron anthopogonoides flowering aerial parts possessed significant toxicity against maize weevils, Sitophilus zeamais. A total of 37 components were identified in the essential oil and the main constituents of the essential oil were 4-phenyl-2-butanone (27.22%), nerolidol (8.08%), 1,4-cineole (7.85%), caryophyllene (7.63%) and γ-elemene (6.10%), followed by α-farnesene (4.40%) and spathulenol (4.19%). Repeated bioactivity-directed chromatographic separation on silica gel columns led us to isolate three compounds, namely 4-phenyl-2-butanone, 1,4-cineole, and nerolidol. 4-Phenyl-2-butanone shows pronounced contact toxicity against S. zeamais (LD50 = 6.98 mg/adult) and was more toxic than either 1,4-cineole or nerolidol (LD50 = 50.86 mg/adult and 29.30 mg/adult, respectively) against the maize weevils, while the crude essential oil had a LD50 value of 11.67 mg/adult. 4-Phenyl-2-butanone and 1,4-cineole also possessed strong fumigant toxicity against the adults of S. zeamais (LC50 = 3.80 mg/L and 21.43 mg/L) while the crude essential oil had a LC50 value of 9.66 mg/L.
Keywords: Rhododendron anthopogonoides; Sitophilus zeamais; contact toxicity; fumigant; 4-phenyl-2-butanone; essential oil composition
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, K.; Zhou, Y.X.; Wang, C.F.; Du, S.S.; Deng, Z.W.; Liu, Q.Z.; Liu, Z.L. Toxicity of Rhododendron anthopogonoides Essential Oil and Its Constituent Compounds towards Sitophilus zeamais. Molecules 2011, 16, 7320-7330.

AMA Style

Yang K, Zhou YX, Wang CF, Du SS, Deng ZW, Liu QZ, Liu ZL. Toxicity of Rhododendron anthopogonoides Essential Oil and Its Constituent Compounds towards Sitophilus zeamais. Molecules. 2011; 16(9):7320-7330.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yang, Kai; Zhou, Yu Xin; Wang, Cheng Fang; Du, Shu Shan; Deng, Zhi Wei; Liu, Qi Zhi; Liu, Zhi Long. 2011. "Toxicity of Rhododendron anthopogonoides Essential Oil and Its Constituent Compounds towards Sitophilus zeamais." Molecules 16, no. 9: 7320-7330.

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