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Cholesterol-Lowering Activity of the Major Polyphenols in Grape Seed
The Medical Food Research and Development Center, Department of Transfusion Medicine, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
Program in Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
The Research Group of Herbal Medicine for Prevention and Therapeutic of Metabolic Diseases, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 April 2011; in revised form: 13 June 2011 / Accepted: 16 June 2011 / Published: 17 June 2011
Abstract: The major polyphenols in grape seed have been shown to have beneficial health effects in the prevention of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. In this present study, we investigated the cholesterol-lowering activity of three major polyphenolic compounds found in grape seed. The results showed that gallic acid, catechin, and epicatechin significantly inhibited pancreatic cholesterol esterase in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, they bound to taurocholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid, and glycodeoxycholic acid at levels ranging from 38.6% to 28.2%. At the concentration of 0.2 mg/mL, gallic acid, catechin, and epicatechin reduced the formation of cholesterol micelles 27.26 ± 2.17%, 11.88 ± 0.75%, and 19.49 ± 3.71%, respectively. These findings clearly demonstrate that three major polyphenolic compounds present in a particular grape seed have cholesterol-lowering activity by inhibiting pancreatic cholesterol esterase, binding of bile acids, and reducing solubility of cholesterol in micelles which may result in delayed cholesterol absorption.
Keywords: polyphenols; grape seed; mechanism pancreatic cholesterol esterase; cholesterol micelles; bile acid
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MDPI and ACS Style
Ngamukote, S.; Mäkynen, K.; Thilawech, T.; Adisakwattana, S. Cholesterol-Lowering Activity of the Major Polyphenols in Grape Seed. Molecules 2011, 16, 5054-5061.
Ngamukote S, Mäkynen K, Thilawech T, Adisakwattana S. Cholesterol-Lowering Activity of the Major Polyphenols in Grape Seed. Molecules. 2011; 16(6):5054-5061.
Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Mäkynen, Kittana; Thilawech, Thavaree; Adisakwattana, Sirichai. 2011. "Cholesterol-Lowering Activity of the Major Polyphenols in Grape Seed." Molecules 16, no. 6: 5054-5061.