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Molecules 2011, 16(4), 2990-3000; doi:10.3390/molecules16042990
Article

Reactive Oxygen Species-Induced Impairment of Endothelium-Dependent Relaxations in Rat Aortic Rings: Protection by Methanolic Extracts of Phoebe grandis

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Received: 10 February 2011; in revised form: 15 March 2011 / Accepted: 1 April 2011 / Published: 6 April 2011
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Abstract: Generation of reactive oxygen species plays a pivotal role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. The present study describes the effects of the methanolic extract of Phoebe grandis (MPG) stem bark on reactive oxygen species-induced endothelial dysfunction in vitro. Endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine, ACh) and -independent relaxation (sodium nitroprusside, SNP) was investigated from isolated rat aorta of Sprague-Dawley (SD) in the presence of the β-NADH (enzymatic superoxide inducer) and MPG extract. Superoxide anion production in aortic vessels was measured by lucigen chemiluminesence. Thirty minutes incubation of the rat aorta in vitro with β-NADH increased superoxide radical production and significantly inhibited ACh-induced relaxations. Pretreatment with MPG (0.5, 5 and 50 μg/mL) restored the ACh-induced relaxations (Rmax: 92.29% ± 2.93, 91.02% ± 4.54 and 88.31 ± 2.36, respectively) in the presence of β-NADH. MPG was ineffective in reversing the impaired ACh-induced relaxations caused by pyrogallol, a non-enzymatic superoxide generator. Superoxide dismutase (a superoxide scavenger), however, reversed the impaired ACh relaxations induced by both β-NADH and pyrogallol. MPG also markedly inhibited the β-NADH-induced generation of the superoxide radicals. Furthermore, MPG scavenging peroxyl radicals generated by tBuOOH (10−4 M).These results indicate that MPG may improve the endothelium dependent relaxations to ACh through its scavenging activity as well as by inhibiting the NADH/NADPH oxidase induced generation of superoxide anions.
Keywords: Phoebe grandis; β-NADH; isolated rat aorta; endothelial dysfunction; superoxide anions Phoebe grandis; β-NADH; isolated rat aorta; endothelial dysfunction; superoxide anions
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yeh-Siang, L.; Subramaniam, G.; Hadi, A.H.A.; Murugan, D.; Mustafa, M.R. Reactive Oxygen Species-Induced Impairment of Endothelium-Dependent Relaxations in Rat Aortic Rings: Protection by Methanolic Extracts of Phoebe grandis. Molecules 2011, 16, 2990-3000.

AMA Style

Yeh-Siang L, Subramaniam G, Hadi AHA, Murugan D, Mustafa MR. Reactive Oxygen Species-Induced Impairment of Endothelium-Dependent Relaxations in Rat Aortic Rings: Protection by Methanolic Extracts of Phoebe grandis. Molecules. 2011; 16(4):2990-3000.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yeh-Siang, Lau; Subramaniam, Gopal; Hadi, A. Hamid A.; Murugan, Dharmani; Mustafa, Mohd Rais. 2011. "Reactive Oxygen Species-Induced Impairment of Endothelium-Dependent Relaxations in Rat Aortic Rings: Protection by Methanolic Extracts of Phoebe grandis." Molecules 16, no. 4: 2990-3000.


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