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Molecules 2011, 16(3), 1973-1980; doi:10.3390/molecules16031973
Article

Effect of End Groups on the Raman Spectra of Lycopene and β-Carotene under High Pressure

1
,
1,* , 1,* , 1
,
1
 and
2
1 Center for Condensed Matter Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001, China 2 College of Physics, Ji Lin University, Changchun 130023, China
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 November 2010 / Revised: 8 February 2011 / Accepted: 10 February 2011 / Published: 25 February 2011
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Abstract

The Raman spectra of all-trans-lycopene in n-hexane were measured under high pressure, and the results compared with those of β-carotene. The different pressure effects on Raman spectra are analyzed taking into account the different structures of lycopene and β-carotene molecules. It is concluded that: (a) the vibronic coupling between the S1 and S0 states of β-carotene is stronger than that of lycopene, (b) the diabatic frequency increment of the ν1 mode is more susceptible to pressure than that of the ν2 mode for lycopene, and (c) β-rings rotation can relieve the pressure effect on the C=C bond length in β-carotene. This work provides some insights for elucidating the structural and environmental effects on Raman spectra of carotenoids.
Keywords: pressure; structure; Raman; lycopene; β-carotene pressure; structure; Raman; lycopene; β-carotene
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Huo, M.-M.; Liu, W.-L.; Zheng, Z.-R.; Zhang, W.; Li, A.-H.; Xu, D.-P. Effect of End Groups on the Raman Spectra of Lycopene and β-Carotene under High Pressure. Molecules 2011, 16, 1973-1980.

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