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Farnesol, a Potential Efflux Pump Inhibitor in Mycobacterium smegmatis
Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Ministry of Education, Institute of Zoonosis, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun, 130062, China
Key and Open Laboratory of Veterinary Pharmaceutical Engineering, Lanzhou Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Pharmaceutics, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, 730050, China
Laboratory of Nutrition and Functional Food, Jilin University, Changchun, 130062, China
The First Hospital of Jilin University, Jilin University, Changchun, 130021, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 September 2010; in revised form: 2 October 2010 / Accepted: 25 October 2010 / Published: 29 October 2010
Abstract: The active multidrug efflux pump (EP) has been described as one of the mechanisms involved in the natural drug resistance of bacteria, such as mycobacteria. As a result, the development of efflux pumps inhibitors (EPIs) is an important topic. In this study, a checkerboard synergy assay indicated that farnesol both decreased the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ethidium bromide (EtBr) 8-fold against Mycobacterium smegmatis (M. smegmatis) mc2155 ATCC 700084 when incorporated at a concentration of 32 μg/mL (FICI = 0.625) and decreased MIC 4-fold at 16 μg/mL (FICI = 0.375). Farnesol also showed synergism when combined with rifampicin. A real-time 96-well plate fluorometric method was used to assess the ability of farnesol to inhibit EPs in comparison withfour positive EPIs: chlorpromazine, reserpine, verapamil, and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP). Farnesol significantly enhanced the accumulation of EtBr and decreased the efflux of EtBr in M. smegmatis; these results suggest that farnesol acts as an inhibitor of mycobacterial efflux pumps.
Keywords: farnesol; inhibitor; efflux pump; Mycobacterium smegmatis
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MDPI and ACS Style
Jin, J.; Zhang, J.-Y.; Guo, N.; Sheng, H.; Li, L.; Liang, J.-C.; Wang, X.-L.; Li, Y.; Liu, M.-Y.; Wu, X.-P.; Yu, L. Farnesol, a Potential Efflux Pump Inhibitor in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Molecules 2010, 15, 7750-7762.
Jin J, Zhang J-Y, Guo N, Sheng H, Li L, Liang J-C, Wang X-L, Li Y, Liu M-Y, Wu X-P, Yu L. Farnesol, a Potential Efflux Pump Inhibitor in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Molecules. 2010; 15(11):7750-7762.
Jin, Jing; Zhang, Ji-Yu; Guo, Na; Sheng, Hui; Li, Lei; Liang, Jun-Chao; Wang, Xue-Lin; Li, Yang; Liu, Ming-Yuan; Wu, Xiu-Ping; Yu, Lu. 2010. "Farnesol, a Potential Efflux Pump Inhibitor in Mycobacterium smegmatis." Molecules 15, no. 11: 7750-7762.