Next Article in Journal
Changes of Flavan-3-ols with Different Degrees of Polymerization in Seeds of ‘Shiraz’, ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Marselan’ Grapes after Veraison
Previous Article in Journal
α-Lithiation and Electrophilic Substitution of 1,4,4-Trimethyl-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2-one
Molecules 2010, 15(11), 7750-7762; doi:10.3390/molecules15117750

Farnesol, a Potential Efflux Pump Inhibitor in Mycobacterium smegmatis

1,†, 2,†, 3,†, 4, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1,*  and 1,*
1 Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Ministry of Education, Institute of Zoonosis, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun, 130062, China 2 Key and Open Laboratory of Veterinary Pharmaceutical Engineering, Lanzhou Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Pharmaceutics, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, 730050, China 3 Laboratory of Nutrition and Functional Food, Jilin University, Changchun, 130062, China 4 The First Hospital of Jilin University, Jilin University, Changchun, 130021, China These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 September 2010 / Revised: 2 October 2010 / Accepted: 25 October 2010 / Published: 29 October 2010
Download PDF [171 KB, uploaded 18 June 2014]


The active multidrug efflux pump (EP) has been described as one of the mechanisms involved in the natural drug resistance of bacteria, such as mycobacteria. As a result, the development of efflux pumps inhibitors (EPIs) is an important topic. In this study, a checkerboard synergy assay indicated that farnesol both decreased the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ethidium bromide (EtBr) 8-fold against Mycobacterium smegmatis (M. smegmatis) mc2155 ATCC 700084 when incorporated at a concentration of 32 μg/mL (FICI = 0.625) and decreased MIC 4-fold at 16 μg/mL (FICI = 0.375). Farnesol also showed synergism when combined with rifampicin. A real-time 96-well plate fluorometric method was used to assess the ability of farnesol to inhibit EPs in comparison withfour positive EPIs: chlorpromazine, reserpine, verapamil, and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP). Farnesol significantly enhanced the accumulation of EtBr and decreased the efflux of EtBr in M. smegmatis; these results suggest that farnesol acts as an inhibitor of mycobacterial efflux pumps.
Keywords: farnesol; inhibitor; efflux pump; Mycobacterium smegmatis farnesol; inhibitor; efflux pump; Mycobacterium smegmatis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
MDPI and ACS Style

Jin, J.; Zhang, J.-Y.; Guo, N.; Sheng, H.; Li, L.; Liang, J.-C.; Wang, X.-L.; Li, Y.; Liu, M.-Y.; Wu, X.-P.; Yu, L. Farnesol, a Potential Efflux Pump Inhibitor in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Molecules 2010, 15, 7750-7762.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert