Molecules 2010, 15(11), 7750-7762; doi:10.3390/molecules15117750

Farnesol, a Potential Efflux Pump Inhibitor in Mycobacterium smegmatis

1,†, 2,†, 3,†, 4, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1,* email and 1,* email
Received: 1 September 2010; in revised form: 2 October 2010 / Accepted: 25 October 2010 / Published: 29 October 2010
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The active multidrug efflux pump (EP) has been described as one of the mechanisms involved in the natural drug resistance of bacteria, such as mycobacteria. As a result, the development of efflux pumps inhibitors (EPIs) is an important topic. In this study, a checkerboard synergy assay indicated that farnesol both decreased the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ethidium bromide (EtBr) 8-fold against Mycobacterium smegmatis (M. smegmatis) mc2155 ATCC 700084 when incorporated at a concentration of 32 μg/mL (FICI = 0.625) and decreased MIC 4-fold at 16 μg/mL (FICI = 0.375). Farnesol also showed synergism when combined with rifampicin. A real-time 96-well plate fluorometric method was used to assess the ability of farnesol to inhibit EPs in comparison withfour positive EPIs: chlorpromazine, reserpine, verapamil, and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP). Farnesol significantly enhanced the accumulation of EtBr and decreased the efflux of EtBr in M. smegmatis; these results suggest that farnesol acts as an inhibitor of mycobacterial efflux pumps.
Keywords: farnesol; inhibitor; efflux pump; Mycobacterium smegmatis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jin, J.; Zhang, J.-Y.; Guo, N.; Sheng, H.; Li, L.; Liang, J.-C.; Wang, X.-L.; Li, Y.; Liu, M.-Y.; Wu, X.-P.; Yu, L. Farnesol, a Potential Efflux Pump Inhibitor in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Molecules 2010, 15, 7750-7762.

AMA Style

Jin J, Zhang J-Y, Guo N, Sheng H, Li L, Liang J-C, Wang X-L, Li Y, Liu M-Y, Wu X-P, Yu L. Farnesol, a Potential Efflux Pump Inhibitor in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Molecules. 2010; 15(11):7750-7762.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jin, Jing; Zhang, Ji-Yu; Guo, Na; Sheng, Hui; Li, Lei; Liang, Jun-Chao; Wang, Xue-Lin; Li, Yang; Liu, Ming-Yuan; Wu, Xiu-Ping; Yu, Lu. 2010. "Farnesol, a Potential Efflux Pump Inhibitor in Mycobacterium smegmatis." Molecules 15, no. 11: 7750-7762.

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