Next Article in Journal
Bystander or No Bystander for Gene Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy
Previous Article in Journal
A New Triterpene Hexaglycoside from the Bark of Kalopanax septemlobus (Thunb.) Koidz.
Molecules 2009, 14(11), 4505-4516; doi:10.3390/molecules14114505
Article

Antioxidant Effects of Some Drugs on Immobilization Stress Combined with Cold Restraint Stress

1,* , 2, 1, 2, 1 and 3
Received: 7 September 2009 / Revised: 20 October 2009 / Accepted: 9 November 2009 / Published: 10 November 2009
Download PDF [354 KB, uploaded 18 June 2014]

Abstract

The aim of this work was to investigate the effect on antioxidant potential of some commonly used drugs (morphine, tramadol, bromocriptine, haloperidol and azithromycin) on immobilization stress (IS) combined with cold restraint stress (CRS) in the rat. After the drug treatment the animals were kept immobilized in the cold chamber at 4±0.3ºC for 3 hours and then decapitaed and the livers were extracted. The following parameters were determined in the liver homogenate: content of reduced glutathione, activities of catalase, xanthine oxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, peroxidase, and lipid peroxidation intensity. A battery of biochemical assays was used and the resulting data were statistically analyzed. Combined stress exhibited a prooxidative action (increased catalase activity, lowered content of reduced glutathione). Significantly enhanced catalase activity that was observed in all groups compared to the control indicates that the primary reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolite is hydrogen peroxide, which decomposes very rapidly (very high catalase activity), thus hindering formation of OH radicals as the most toxic ROS. None of the tested drugs showed a protective effect on combined IS and CRS. The intensity of lipid peroxidation did not change either in the combined stress or under additional influence of the drugs. Probably, under our experimental conditions, the time was not sufficiently long to observe damage of lipid membrane by ROS.
Keywords: immobilization stress; cold restraint stress; morphine; tramadol; bromocriptine; haloperidol; azithromycin; antioxidative status immobilization stress; cold restraint stress; morphine; tramadol; bromocriptine; haloperidol; azithromycin; antioxidative status
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote
MDPI and ACS Style

Popovic, M.; Janicijevic-Hudomal, S.; Kaurinovic, B.; Rasic, J.; Trivic, S.; Vojnović, M. Antioxidant Effects of Some Drugs on Immobilization Stress Combined with Cold Restraint Stress. Molecules 2009, 14, 4505-4516.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Comments

Citing Articles

[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert