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Molecules 2008, 13(4), 904-921; doi:10.3390/molecules13040904

Antimicrobial and Antioxidative Activities of Bioactive Constituents from Hydnophytum formicarum Jack.

1,* , 1, 2, 2, 3 and 2,*
1 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Sukhumvit 23, Bangkok 10110, Thailand 2 Department of Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700, Thailand 3 Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Vipavadee Rangsit Highway, Bangkok 10210, Thailand
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 April 2008 / Revised: 17 April 2008 / Accepted: 17 April 2008 / Published: 18 April 2008
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Hydnophytum formicarum Jack. (Rubiaceae) is a medicinal plant whose tuberspossesses cardiovascular, anti-inflammatory and antiparasitic effects and have been usedfor the treatment of hepatitis, rheumatism and diarrhea. Herein we report the isolation of itsactive constituents and the testing of their antimicrobial activity against 27 strains ofmicroorganisms using an agar dilution method and of their antioxidative activity using theDPPH and SOD assays. The results show that the crude hexane, dichloromethane, ethylacetate and methanol extracts exert such activities. Particularly, the crude ethyl acetateextract exhibits antigrowth activity against many Gram-positive and Gram-negativebacteria with MIC 256 μg/mL. Shewanella putrefaciens ATCC 8671 is completelyinhibited at a lower MIC (128 μg/mL). Interestingly, Corynebacterium diphtheriae NCTC10356 is inhibited by all the tested extracts. Significantly, the ethyl acetate extract is alsothe most potent antioxidant, showing 83.31% radical scavenging activity with IC50 8.40μg/mL in the DPPH assay. The other extracts display weak to moderate antioxidativeMolecules 2008, 13905activities, ranging from 28.60-56.80% radical scavenging. The SOD assay shows thatmethanol extract exhibits the highest activity (74.19% inhibition of superoxide radical).The dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extracts display comparable SOD activity. Thepromising bioactivities of the crude ethyl acetate extract guided the first isolation ofbioactive flavonoid and phenolic compounds: isoliquiritigenin (2), protocatechualdehyde(3), butin (4) and butein (5) from this species. Their structures have been fully establishedby 1D and 2D NMR. In addition, stigmasterol was isolated from the crude hexane anddichloromethane extracts. The antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of compounds 3-5were evaluated. The tested compounds were inactive against HuCCA-1 and KB cell lines,showing ED50> 10 μg/mL. Protocatechualdehyde (3) completely inhibits the growth ofPlesiomonas shigelloides with MIC ≤60 μg/mL. As a result, we propose that Hydnophytumformicarum Jack. can serve as a new source enriched with potent antioxidative andantimicrobial agents.
Keywords: Hydnophytum formicarum Jack.; antimicrobial; antioxidative and cytotoxic activities. Hydnophytum formicarum Jack.; antimicrobial; antioxidative and cytotoxic activities.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Prachayasittikul, S.; Buraparuangsang, P.; Worachartcheewan, A.; Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya, C.; Ruchirawat, S.; Prachayasittikul, V. Antimicrobial and Antioxidative Activities of Bioactive Constituents from Hydnophytum formicarum Jack.. Molecules 2008, 13, 904-921.

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