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Biosynthesis and Genetic Regulation of Proanthocyanidins in Plants
Center for Viticulture and Enology, College of Food Science & Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100083, P.R. China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 August 2008; in revised form: 21 October 2008 / Accepted: 23 October 2008 / Published: 28 October 2008
Abstract: Proanthocyanidins (PAs), also known as condensed tannins, are a group of polyphenolic secondary metabolites synthesized in plants as oligomers or polymers of flavan-3-ol units via the flavonoid pathway. Due to their structural complexity and varied composition, only in the recent years has the study on the biosynthesis and regulation of PAs in plants taken off, although some details of the synthetic mechanism remain unclear. This paper aims to summarize the status of research on the structures of PAs in plants, the genes encoding key enzymes of biosynthetic pathway, the transport factors, the transcriptional regulation of PA biosynthesis and the genetic manipulation of PAs. The problems of this field were also discussed, including the nature of the final “enzyme” which catalyzes the polymerization reaction of PAs and the possible mechanism of how the elementary units of flavanols are assembled in vivo.
Keywords: Proanthocyanidins; Condensed Tannins; Structures; Flavonoid Biosynthesis; Transport Factors; Regulatory Genes
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
He, F.; Pan, Q.-H.; Shi, Y.; Duan, C.-Q. Biosynthesis and Genetic Regulation of Proanthocyanidins in Plants. Molecules 2008, 13, 2674-2703.
He F, Pan Q-H, Shi Y, Duan C-Q. Biosynthesis and Genetic Regulation of Proanthocyanidins in Plants. Molecules. 2008; 13(10):2674-2703.
He, Fei; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Shi, Ying; Duan, Chang-Qing. 2008. "Biosynthesis and Genetic Regulation of Proanthocyanidins in Plants." Molecules 13, no. 10: 2674-2703.