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Entropy 2018, 20(5), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/e20050337

Lyapunov Exponents of a Discontinuous 4D Hyperchaotic System of Integer or Fractional Order

Romanian Institute of Science and Technology, 400487 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Received: 18 April 2018 / Revised: 30 April 2018 / Accepted: 30 April 2018 / Published: 3 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Frontier in Chaos Theory and Complex Networks)
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Abstract

In this paper, the dynamics of local finite-time Lyapunov exponents of a 4D hyperchaotic system of integer or fractional order with a discontinuous right-hand side and as an initial value problem, are investigated graphically. It is shown that a discontinuous system of integer or fractional order cannot be numerically integrated using methods for continuous differential equations. A possible approach for discontinuous systems is presented. To integrate the initial value problem of fractional order or integer order, the discontinuous system is continuously approximated via Filippov’s regularization and Cellina’s Theorem. The Lyapunov exponents of the approximated system of integer or fractional order are represented as a function of two variables: as a function of two parameters, or as a function of the fractional order and one parameter, respectively. The obtained three-dimensional representation leads to comprehensive conclusions regarding the nature, differences and sign of the Lyapunov exponents in both integer order and fractional order cases. View Full-Text
Keywords: fractional-order system; Caputo’s derivative; discontinuous initial value problem; continuous approximation; Lyapunov exponent fractional-order system; Caputo’s derivative; discontinuous initial value problem; continuous approximation; Lyapunov exponent
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Danca, M.-F. Lyapunov Exponents of a Discontinuous 4D Hyperchaotic System of Integer or Fractional Order. Entropy 2018, 20, 337.

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