Next Article in Journal
An Approach to the Evaluation of the Quality of Accounting Information Based on Relative Entropy in Fuzzy Linguistic Environments
Next Article in Special Issue
Kinetics of Interactions of Matter, Antimatter and Radiation Consistent with Antisymmetric (CPT-Invariant) Thermodynamics
Previous Article in Journal
Quadratic Mutual Information Feature Selection
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Quantum Harmonic Otto Cycle
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Entropy 2017, 19(4), 158; doi:10.3390/e19040158

Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics and Steady State Density Matrix for Quantum Open Systems

Department of Physics, Faculty of Natural and Mathematical Sciences, King’s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS, UK
Academic Editor: Ronnie Kosloff
Received: 8 March 2017 / Revised: 28 March 2017 / Accepted: 30 March 2017 / Published: 2 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Thermodynamics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [342 KB, uploaded 2 April 2017]   |  

Abstract

We consider the generic model of a finite-size quantum electron system connected to two (temperature and particle) reservoirs. The quantum open system is driven out of equilibrium by the presence of both potential temperature and chemical differences between the two reservoirs. The nonequilibrium (NE) thermodynamical properties of such a quantum open system are studied for the steady state regime. In such a regime, the corresponding NE density matrix is built on the so-called generalised Gibbs ensembles. From different expressions of the NE density matrix, we can identify the terms related to the entropy production in the system. We show, for a simple model, that the entropy production rate is always a positive quantity. Alternative expressions for the entropy production are also obtained from the Gibbs–von Neumann conventional formula and discussed in detail. Our results corroborate and expand earlier works found in the literature. View Full-Text
Keywords: quantum open systems; nonequilibrium steady state; generalised Gibbs ensembles; entropy quantum open systems; nonequilibrium steady state; generalised Gibbs ensembles; entropy
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ness, H. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics and Steady State Density Matrix for Quantum Open Systems. Entropy 2017, 19, 158.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Entropy EISSN 1099-4300 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top